“Mahua wenxue de zuqunxing: yanjiu lingyu de jiangou yu wuqu” 马华 文学的族群性:研究领域的建构与误区 (Ethnicity of Mahua Literature: Construction and Pitfalls of A Research Field), presented at the Third Asia Forum, Historical and Cultural Studies on “Ethnic Relations and Regional Comparison of the Chinese Communities,” in Singapore, organized by the Department of Chinese Studies, National University of Singapore, 13-15 November, 2009.
Zhu Youjian was son of the Taichang Emperor and younger brother of the Tianqi Emperor, whom he succeeded to the throne in 1627. He battled peasant rebellions and was not able to defend the northern frontier against the Manchu. When rebels reached the capital Beijing in 1644, he committed suicide, ending the Ming dynasty. The Manchu formed the succeeding Qing dynasty.
Such standpoint has led local press groups to successively adopt diverse approaches over the past two years to cope with the challenge of new media. Among these approaches, the ‘extendedly ameliorated’ path, namely the implementation of incremental development of newspapers through flow reconstruction whilst retaining their original production system (Mai, 2012: 118), has become a common option of most local press groups. Although media convergence exerts an increasingly significant effect on these local press groups, relevant empirical studies remain limited at present. The current study analyses the perceptions of local newspaper journalists on and evaluations of media convergence through a survey and 20 in-depth interviews so as to disclose the effects of the dominant path of media convergence on local press groups based on the understanding of and reflection on the viewpoints of the ‘insiders’.
 “Jiu qiaoxiang de zhuanxing: 1978 zhi 2000 nian zhijian lisan huaren dui Panyu de yingxiang” 旧侨乡的转型:1978至2000年之间离散华人对番禺的影响   (The Transformation of Old Qiaoxiang: Chinese Diaspora’s Impact on Panyu, 1978-2000) in Tan Chee Beng 陈志明, Ding Yuling 丁毓玲 and Wang Lianmao 王连茂 (eds.), Kuaguo wangluo yu Huanan qiaoxiang: wenhua, rentong he shehui bianqian 跨国网络与华南侨乡:文化、认同和社会变迁  (Transnational Networks and Qiaoxiang Areas in South China:  Cultural, Identity and Social Change).  Hong Kong: Hong Kong Institute of Asia-Pacific Studies香港亚太研究所, Chinese University of Hong Kong, 2006 , pp. 303-343.
The relationship between demographic factors with journalists’ attitude towards new media has been analysed in order to determine the variation among different types of journalists. The results of the ANOVA test indicate that gender and degree of education make no difference to the respondents’ perception about the changes or to their evaluation of new media; the type of newspaper makes no difference to the former but does influences the latter (F = 13.107, df = 1, p < .01). The results of the correlation analysis indicate that the respondents’ ages and years at work are uncorrelated to their perception but positively correlated to their evaluation of new media (r = 0.235, p < .001; r = 0.185, p < .01). Although local journalists in Fujian have generally recognised the changes brought about by new media to newspapers, those from metropolis newspapers were more inclined to provide a negative evaluation to these changes than those from party organs, whilst the older and more experienced the journalists were, the more positive evaluation they tended to provide to new media.
Liánrì qi yuè wu rì cóng beijing fanhuí míngnísudá zhou. Women liang rén yú qi yuè èrshí rì (xingqí'èr) fei wang xiyatú, zài huáshèngdùn bèi lái wéi shìchá ta de péngyou lú nushì. Jingguò 3 tian de fangwèn, women huíláile. Bùjiu zhihòu, lián fei dào tiánnàxi zhou nà shí wéi'er, bàifangle ta de mèimei wèi gé hé en gé de zhàngfu chá kè·pà er. Wo zài qi yuè sanshíyi hào fei wang huáshèngdùn gelúnbiya tèqu, huìjiànle cóng nà shí wéi'er jiàshi de lián héwén qí. Women yiqi kai che qù mi'er fú dé. Ránhòu san tian, women canguanle fèichéng, niuyue shì hé niu hei wén kangnièdígé zhou. Liánxì hen shengqì. Ta ba yuèchuhuí dào beijing. Dangrán, wo baochí xila de huáiyùn shì yigè mìmì.
To detect the presence of variants in other genes in sporadic ALS lines, whole-genome sequencing was performed by the New York Genome Center, or whole-exome sequencing was performed at the Children’s Hospital Los Angeles Genomics Facility. The genome/exome sequences were aligned to hg19 by Novoalign. We used an in-house tool developed by Anton Valouev (USC) for the removal of duplicate reads. Variant calling occurred by the Genome Analysis Toolkit (Broad Institute).

Youle zhège jìshù bèijing, ràng women zhuanzhù yú “jiézòu hé zìwo yìshí” zhè ben shu de zhutí. Ta kenéng gèng shìdàng de cheng wèi “xíngshì, jiézòu hé zìwo yìshí”. Taolùn yousan gè bùfèn. Ànzhào chuántong zhéxué, xíngshì de taolùn fasheng zài dì èr hé dì san zhang. Jiézòu de taolùn, guanzhù yinyuè hé tiyù, zài dì sì, wu hé liù zhang. Zìwo yìshí de taolùn zài dì qi zhang, dì ba zhang, dì jiu zhang hé dì shí zhang zhong chongmanle zhè ben shu de qíyú bùfèn. Zìwo yìshí shèjí jiang zhùyì lì de jiaodian cóng shìsú shìjiàn zhuanyí dào guanchá zhe zìji de siwéi guòchéng. 

Guanyú xíngshì, women zhèngzài fùzhì gudian xilà zhéxué jia de fangfa, tamen ba sixiang de yuánsù (hé tamen bèihòu de wùti) kàn zuò yonghéng de shengwù. Shìjiè shàng cúnzài de rènhé duìxiàng dou keyi yòng cí lái biaoshì. Zì chuàn zài yiqi biaoshì sixiang. Sixiangfanyìngle rénlèi sixiang zhong de shìjiè. Dàn xilà rén rènwéi zhè shì zhéxué jia keyi xuéxí de yonghéng cúnzài jiégòu. Shíjian tíngzhi, ér xuéxí fasheng. Sixiang xíngshì de sixiang jùyou zìji de xiànshí, chúle shìsú de shìjiàn zhi wài cúnzài, bìng yongyuan tíngliú zàiyuán dì.
Zhou, BH (2014) Chinese journalists’ social media usage and its influential factors: A survey on young journalists in Shanghai (Zhongguo xinwen congyezhe de shejiao meiti yunyong jiqi yingxiang yinsu: Yi xiang zhendui shanghai qingnian xinwen congyezhe de diaocha yanjiu). Journal of Journalism and Communication (Xinwen yu chuanbo yanjiu) 120(12): 34–53.
The term ‘convergence’ was firstly presented in the 1980s (Menke et al., 2016). Convergence was used to describe the phenomenon where the boundary between different forms of communication blurred in the context of new media with a strong technical colour at the beginning. Most of the early studies on convergence were focused on the innovation of medium technology. The social influence of convergence has gradually unfolded with the development of computer technology and communications networking since the 1990s. Journalism researchers have concentrated on the production process, as well as newsroom routine and culture, thereby endowing the concept of ‘convergence’ with a unique social implication (Quinn, 2005).

La Jolla, Jiāzhōu — Wénlín Yánjiūsuǒ yǒuxiàn gōngsī (SPC) zhèngshì fābù Wénlín Hànyǔ Xuéxí Ruǎnjiàn 4.3 háohuá bǎn (Wénlín Wánzhěngbǎn). Xīn fābù de 4.3 bạ̌nběn wánquán zhīchí wánzhěngbǎn Hànyǔ Dà Cídiǎn suọ̌yǐn, suọ̌yǐn jīngguò gēngzhèng, kuòchōng bìng àn zìmǔ shùnxù páiliè, zuòwéi fùjiā chéngxù kě yǔ Wénlín ABC cídiǎn wánměi rónghé, jǐn shòu 49 Měiyuán. Wénlín ABC HDC suọ̌yǐn ruǎnjiàn bǎn kě ràng yònghù qīngsōng chákàn HDC ruǎnjiàn zhōng dàiyǒu de 350, 000 ge duōyīnjié tiáomù. Wénlín ABC HDC kuòzhǎn chéngxù shì yī zhǒng xiānjìn de yánjiū gōngjù, gòng shōunàle chāoguò 568, 000 ge tiáomù. Tōngguò cānkǎo HDC tiáomù, nǐ kẹ̌yǐ gènghǎo de lị̌jiě hěn duō ABC dāncí (bụ̀lùn shì-fǒu chūxiàn zài HDC). Tóngyàng de, HDC hángàile xǔduō wèi shōulù zài ABC cídiǎn de tiáomù, dàn yǔ ABC cíkù jiéhé qǐlai huì gènghǎo lị̌jiě. ABC+HDC de cházhǎo gōngnéng jīngcháng huì dǎoxiàng xiāngguān xìnxī, wúlùn shì Wénlín zhíjiē lièchū de liànjiē huòshì tōngguò Wénlín xīn tuīchū de wǎngluò sōusuǒ gōngnéng. HDC suọ̌yǐn yǔ ABC Hànyǔ cídiǎn xìliè zhǔbiān Méi Wéihéng (Victor H. Mair) jiàoshòu, (láizì Bīnxīfǎníyà dàxué), xiě dào︰ "Kàndào Wénlín fābùle yǐ dānxiàng páixù zìmǔ suọ̌yǐn wánzhěngbǎn «Hànyǔ Dà Cídiǎn» de diànzǐ bǎn, wǒ fēicháng gāoxìng. Zhè duì chīmí Hànyǔ yánjiū de měi yī gèrén lái shuō quèshí shì yī ge fúyīn".


We thank E. Crane and B. Li for help with RNA-seq and helpful discussions; K. Han for helpful discussions and image analysis; and the Stanford Neuroscience Microscopy Service, supported by NIH NS069375. This work was supported by NIH grants R35NS097263 (A.D.G.), DP2HD084069 (M.C.B.), and R01NS097850 (J.K.I.), a National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship (N.J.K.), a National Human Genome Research Institute Training Grant (M.S.H.), the Robert Packard Center for ALS Research at Johns Hopkins (A.D.G.), Target ALS (M.C.B. and A.D.G.), the Stanford Brain Rejuvenation Project of the Stanford Neurosciences Institute (M.C.B. and A.D.G.), the Muscular Dystrophy Association (J.K.I.), and Department of Defense grant W81XWH-15-1-0187 (J.K.I.). J.K.I. is supported as a New York Stem Cell Foundation–Robertson Investigator.
Dangshí wo hái you qíta de tieqì zài huo zhong. Zài 2001 nián 9 yuè 11 rì, zài míng ní abo lì si shì zhang de zhuyào zhànbài zhong, wo jiarùle míngnísudá zhou dúlì dang. 2002 Nián 7 yuè, wo xiàng xiaozu weiyuánhuì dì meiguó canyìyuàn hòuxuan rén tíchu zhíyí. Zhège yùndòng zhuyào shi wéiràozhe guójia fangwèn bàoshè. Jiéguo shì zài san rén bisài zhong zhàn 31%de dì èr míng.
Zhang, ZA, Wu, T (2014) The dual declinings of propagandist and watchdog roles: Chinese Journalists’ media role perception, the changes and antecedents (‘Xuanchuanzhe’ yu ‘jianduzhe’ de shaungchong shiwei: Zhongguo xinwen congyezhe meijie juese renzhi, bianqian ji yingxiang yinsu). Journal of International Communication (Guoji xinwenjie) 6: 61–75. 

(a) Distribution of sequencing from 10 KCNK5 sgRNAs (blue) compared to distribution of sequencing counts of all negative control sgRNA (grey) from PR20 screen replicate 1 (this is an example of a protective genetic modifier). (b) Distribution of sequencing from 10 RHOA sgRNAs (red) compared to distribution of sequencing counts of all negative control sgRNA (grey) from PR20 screen replicate 1 (this is an example of a sensitizing genetic modifier). Using CasTLE these sgRNA count distributions were used to generate effect scores, confidence scores and p-values for each gene (see Supplementary Table 1). (c) Volcano plot of effect vs. confidence scores for all human genes in the PR20 screen. Colored in blue are all the genes conferring resistance to PR20 when knocked out (10%FDR) and colored in red are all the genes conferring sensitivity to PR20 when knocked out (10% FDR). (d) Correlation of casTLE scores for all genes in the library in our screen for modifiers of PR20 toxicity compared to an independent screen for modifiers of another toxic protein, ricin performed in near identical conditions (same lab, same cell line, same sgRNA library). There was zero (R2 = 0) overall correlation between the hits for each screen suggesting a high degree of specificity in the modifiers identified in each screen. Note that TMX2 was only identified as a hit in the PR screen and not the ricin screen.

Wo de yuànwàng de zìsi bùfèn shì ràng yigè háizi cóng wo shenshang yíchuán xiàlái. Wo juédé zhè hen zhòngyào - yexu shì yinwèi wo yiwéi wo zài yíchuán shàng bi qíta rén gèng hao? Bi chángjiu cúnzài gèng hao de xiangfa. Tongguò yigè háizi, wo si hòu huì cúnzài yidìng de chéngdù. Zài shengwù xué shàng, wo de shenghuó jiang huì zhòngyào. Jíshi wo de háizi zài wo zou liao zhihòu bìng méiyou baoliú huò zunzhòng wo de jìyì, suoyi wo yongyuan bù huì wánquán cóng xià yidài hé hòulái de rén zhong tuolí chulái. Shì de, xiang yào jianchí zìji de shenfèn, you yidian shì zìsi de, ér bùshì zhenzhèng zhòngyào de yidian.
Zhèxie qiánghuà shèbèi you zhù yú jiànlì kouqiang wénhuà. Zhè zhong wénhuà duìyú yíshì xìng biaoxiàn de zhongshí dù you hen gao de yaoqiú. Bìxu jì zhù yiqiè de rén fà zhan chu baoshou de xintài, bù yuàn jieshòu xuyào bù xuéxí hé chóngxin xuéxí mou xie shìwù de biànhuà. Kàn qilái yigè zérèn, bìxu jì zhù suoyou zhèxie zhishì, ér bù qiúzhù yú xiezuò. Lìng yi fangmiàn, zhishì biàn de gèngjia gèrén huà, bìngqie zài jìyì zhong baoliú ér bùshì zài zhi shàng biaodá shí geng mìqiè. Zài yuánshi wénhuà yi zongjiào wéi zhongxin de chéngdù shàng, mei zhong yíshì huò jìyì xíngwéi dou chéngwéi yi zhong jiang rén yu zuxian de líng hé shén liánxì qilái de daogào. Zài zhèyàng de wénhuà zhong youyigè shèqu jingshén, shìzì shèhuì quefá. Zhè zhong lèixíng de jìyì zài jingshén shàng bi yóu shují zuchéng de wénhuà lèixíng gèng qiángdà hé gèng fengfù, suirán ta ye kenéng shì yi zhong xiàol? jiào di de baocún zhishì de fangshì.
Chongman yíwèn, wo xiàng fóluólidá zhou Clearwater zhensuo de zhuguan fasòngle yi feng diànzi yóujiàn, gai wangzhàn de Sheila céngjing xianshìguò wo de wangzhàn. Ta huídá shuo, zhensuo yu xila méiyou rènhé yèwù guanxì. Xianrán wo bèi piàn liao dàng wo miàn duì xila shí, ta shuo jìhuà you yigè zuìhòu yikè de biànhuà. Qíshí zhège chéngxù shì zài luo lì bei kaluóláinà dàxué yiyuàn wánchéng de. Rán'ér, zhè jia yiyuàn de wangzhàn méiyou liè chu shuluanguan jiéza de nìzhuan shì qí tígong de yiliáo fúwù zhi yi. Zài ji zhou zhihòu, yu xila de fènnù de diànzi yóujiàn jiaoliú zhihòu, wo xiangxìn xila yijing qi piànle wo.
Zài yigè yuánshi shèhuì, zhiyou dàxíng jigòu, rú zhèngfu huò sìmiào de jìsi cái nénggòu fùdan zhège yìshù zhong de rén. Wénjiàn jìlù shuìshou, fal? hétóng, zongjiào yíshì, yijí jigòu xuyào yùnzuò de qíta wénjiàn huò xìnxi. Xiàng hòulái zhongguó cháodài de rújia xuézhe yiyàng, zhangwò xiezuò jìqiao de aijí huò su mei er guanli zhe chángcháng zài dìguó guanliáo tixì zhong zhànyou gaowèi. Tamen huòdé shumiàn zhishì chéngwéi tèquán hé quánlì de láiyuán. Huòdé shìzì de kùnnán yìwèizhe zhè zhong quánlì jiang zhangwò zài shaoshù rén de shouzhong.
We hypothesized that phenotypic analysis of iMNs from these sporadic ALS patients and C9ORF72 ALS/frontotemporal dementia (FTD) patients would enable the identification of degenerative mechanisms that are shared by C9ORF72 and at least a subset of sporadic ALS motor neurons. We further hypothesized that pharmacologic agents capable of normalizing these phenotypes in C9ORF72 and sporadic ALS iMNs might also rescue neurodegeneration and lead to the identification of therapeutic targets with broad efficacy in the ALS population.
Wo zuìhòu yicì yu zhulì'an dì huìmiàn hen qíguài. Zhè shì zài 2011 nián 2 yuè de dì èr gè xingqí. Ji gè yuè li, wo hái méiyou kàn dào ta, ye méi ting shuoguò ta. Ta kenéng yijing qùle dé kè sà si zhou yiduàn shíjian. Wúlùn rúhé, dang wo shuìzhe de shíhòu, wo zaochén 3 dian cái jie dào diànhuà. Zhulì'an ràng wo zài gelúnbiya gaodì, dàyue wushí hé zhongyang dàdào yùjiàn ta. Ta shuo ta xuyào cóng nàli dào ta muqin zài shèngbaoluó dì dìfang. Qichu wo shuo “bù”le. Wo bùzàihu nàme qingxing de daraole. Dànshì bìjìng shì zhulì'an. Wo da diànhuà shuo wo huì zài nàli.
We thank the NINDS Biorepository at Coriell Institute for providing the following cell lines for this study: ND12133, ND03231, ND01751, ND11976, ND03719, ND00184, ND5280, ND06769, ND10689, ND12099, ND14954, ND08957, ND12100 and ND014587. We thank H. Chui and C. Miller (University of Southern California Alzheimer's Disease Research Center) and N. Shneider (Columbia University Medical Center) for control and C9ORF72 patient tissue. We thank the Choi Family Therapeutic Screening Facility for chemical screening support and the Translational Imaging Center at USC for imaging support. We thank M. Koppers, Y, Adolfs, C. van der Meer and M. Broekhoven for help with mouse breeding and kainate injection experiments. We thank S. Waguri (Fukushima Medical University) for providing the M6PR-GFP construct. We thank C, Buser for assistance with electron microscopy. We also thank S. Alworth (DRVision Technologies), K. Hebestreit and R. Bhatnagar (Verge Genomics), B. Baloh (Cedars Sinai Medical Center), J. O'Rourke (Cedars Sinai Medical Center), C. Donnelly, C. Tong, A. McMahon and Q. Liu-Michael for reagents, technical support and discussions. E.Y.S. is a Walter V. and Idun Berry Postdoctoral Fellow. K.A.S. was supported in part by a Muscular Dystrophy Association Development Grant. L.M. was supported by NIH grant T32DC009975-04. This work was supported by NIH grants AG039452, AG023084 and NS034467 to B.V.Z. R.J.P. was supported by grants from ALS Foundation Netherlands (TOTALS), Epilepsiefonds (12-08, 15-05), and VICI grant Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO). This work was also supported by NIH grants R00NS077435 and R01NS097850, US Department of Defense grant W81XWH-15-1-0187, and grants from the Donald E. and Delia B. Baxter Foundation, the Tau Consortium, the Frick Foundation for ALS Research, the Muscular Dystrophy Association, the New York Stem Cell Foundation, the USC Keck School of Medicine Regenerative Medicine Initiative, the USC Broad Innovation Award, and the Southern California Clinical and Translational Science Institute to J.K.I. J.K.I. is a New York Stem Cell Foundation-Robertson Investigator.
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