In 2006, the General Administration of Press and Publication of China began enforcing the first batch of the ‘China Digital Newspaper Laboratory Programs’, in which 18 national and local press groups were involved in officially unfolding the prelude of the ‘full-media convergence’, namely an intensive integration of new media into the system of traditional press. Since 2012, Chinese press industry has stepped into a ‘cold winter’. Throughout 2014 alone, the total revenue of newspaper circulation experienced a substantial decrease of 25%, with advertising revenue simultaneously decreasing by 15% (Cui and He, 2015). Several scholars suggested that vulnerable profit-making pattern, global economic recession and the decelerating growth rate of the domestic economy were the key factors for the predicament that Chinese press industry is experiencing (Zhao, 2015). However, the industry tends to ascribe the dramatic revenue decline to the prosperity of new media (cf. Cao, 2010; Zhou, 2015).
Nèitian wanshàng, wo zuòle yigè guge sousuo zhu lì an dì míngzì jia shàng lánqiú. Shì de,“xing bào”2007 nián 12 yuè fabiaole yi pian guanyú ta de gùshì, tímù shì “zhunxing bù zài wú jia ke gui”. Wénzhang kaishi:“Gaozhong nusheng zonggòng huòdéle 75 fen, zài ben sàijì de qián liang chang lánqiú sài zhong huòdé 46 gè lánban, dàn hen shao yourén ting shuoguò ta. Bù kenéng, dàn ta fashengle. Zìcóng dà yi sàijì yilái, ta méiyou daguò xiàoche lánqiú, ér xiànzài, zuòwéi míng ní abo lì si àidísheng de yi míng zishen rénshì, ta zhèngzài zhìzuò gè zhong gè yàng de rén - baokuò dàxué zhaopìn rényuán - zhùyì lì. Bù hao de chéngji, yóuyú jiatíng shenghuó kùnnán, shì ta zuò xiàlái de zhuyào yuányin. Jiézhì 9 yuè zhongxún, ta zhù zài yigè wú jia ke gui de zhùsuo.“

Wo juédìng duì míngnísudá zhou shàngsù fayuàn tíchu shàngsù. Wo ye pìnqingle yi wèi xin de l?shi tángnàdé·xi er si tè lún (Donald Hillstrom) lái dàibiao wo. Women zuò chule yigè wúchi de huyù, daozhì fatíng tuifanle fà xi qí de juédìng. Ba zhège àn zi huán geile shenpàn faguan, zhishì ta bùdé bù xuanbù wo qizi céngjing maiguò fángzi de qián shì yi dàikuan háishì liwù de xíngshì chuxiàn.


In 1645, Zhu Yousong, who had proclaimed himself the Hongguang Emperor of the Southern Ming dynasty, gave the Chongzhen Emperor the temple name "Sizong". In historical texts, "Sizong" is the most common temple name of the Chongzhen Emperor, even though the Southern Ming rulers had changed "Sizong" to "Yizong" (毅宗) and then to "Weizong" (威宗). During the Qing dynasty, the Chongzhen Emperor's temple name was changed to "Huaizong" (懷宗).

Women de yigè wèntí shì shénme shíhòu gàosù xila de háizi ta huáiyùnle. Xila jìhuà zài wanshàng dàng women gongbù yigè tongzhi shí, wo láiguò wancan. Zhè bùduàn tuichí. Wo jingcháng zài dài dùn dàdào de fáng zi jiéshù. Suoyi, you yitian xiàwu, wo jiandan de gàosù mòlìhua zài xila de miànqián huáiyùn. Mòlìhua kaile gè wánxiào, jiùshì duì xìng fùzé xila qiángdiào ta san gè nu'ér huáiyùn de wéixian. Muqin liànxí ta jiang de shénme?


Dang wo de jìhuà mìmì fu chu bìng jieshìqíngkuàng shí, hái you yigè xuanzé shì hé wo de qizi zuò xià. Ta keyi juédìng ta xiang zuò shénme hunyin: Jiéshù huò liú zài wo hé lìng yigè nurén kenéng yongyou de baobao. Wo kaishi duo cì jìnxíng zhè cì duìhuà, dàn kenéng méiyou yongqì huò juéxin tòu lòu yiqiè. Wo de qi zi biaoshì bùtóng qíng. Zài zhèyàng de taolùn zhong, ta zong shì qiángdiào wo qiàn ta de zhàngfu de zérèn. Women cónglái méiyou jìnxíngguò tánlùn you ying'ér de shì qíng. Hunyin shì ta jianchí bùdé bù fúcóng de tiáojiàn.

To determine if 3K3A-APC can normalize glutamate receptor levels on neurons in vivo, we examined its ability to lower NR1 levels and NMDA-induced excitotoxicity in C9orf72+/– mice. We previously showed that hippocampal, cortical, and spinal cord neurons of C9orf72+/– mice have increased NR1 levels compared with C9orf72+/+ mice (4). We previously developed an acute, in vivo NMDA-induced excitotoxicity assay in the hippocampus (Figure 6E), and verified using cresyl violet staining as well as Fluoro-Jade B–positive dead neuron counting in sham control mice that the operation procedure itself does not result in significant injury (4). Similarly to iMN cultures, reduced C9ORF72 levels in C9orf72+/– and C9orf72–/– mice cause hippocampal neurons to undergo greater NMDA-induced excitotoxicity than in C9orf72+/+ mice, resulting in a significantly larger loss of neurons in C9ORF72-deficient mice that could be detected by a reduction in cresyl violet staining (Figure 6, F and G, and ref. 4). A single injection of 3K3A-APC into the hippocampus of C9orf72+/– mice significantly lowered NR1 levels after 48 hours (Figure 6, H and I) (n = 3 mice). Moreover, when coinjected with NMDA, 3K3A-APC significantly reduced the amount of NMDA-induced hippocampal neurodegeneration in C9orf72+/– mice (Figure 6, F and G). Thus, in vivo, 3K3A-APC improves proteostasis and normalizes glutamate receptors, thereby rescuing critical C9ORF72 ALS/FTD gain- and loss-of-function disease processes, respectively.
Yu yiqián jièshào de jingyàn yiyàng, wo de cháxún cóng wèi daozhìguò rìqí. Ji gè nurén yòu rén de tíyì zuò mou xie shìqíng, dàn wo yongyuan bùnéng ba tamen fàng zài yigè shíjian hé dìdian jiànmiàn. Bùxiang fachu gè rén diànhuà hàoma huò diànzi yóujiàn dìzhi, women zhèngzài tongguò women de dàima míngcheng zài wangzhàn nèi jìnxíng tongxìn. Zuìzhong, women bìxu xianghù xìnrèn xiangguan de xìnxi, zúyi anpái zài ròuti shàng ju háng huìyì. Nà zhong qíngkuàng cónglái méiyouguò.

“Wenhua hudong de kenengxing: xin yimin yu Xinjiapo” 文化互动的可能性:新移民与新加坡  (Possibility of Cultural Interaction: New Chinese Migrants and Singapore), presented at the Chinese Cultural Festival Forum, “Xin yimin dui bentu wenhua de gongxian yu chongji” 新移民对本土文化的贡献与冲击  (Contributions and Impacts of Chinese New Immigrants on Local Culture) in Singapore, organized by the Singapore Federation of Chinese Clan Associations, 2 March 2008.


wo mùqián de wèntí de genyuán shì wo shìtú dìngyì shénme yàng de hunyin yinggai shì shénme. Zài zhège shídài, nánxìng bù yidìng shì jiatíng zhong de yangjia húkou zhe. Women de hòu gongyè jingjì rìyì shòudào fùnu de pèi dài. Xuéxiào, chúfáng yòngjù hé qíta xiàndài shenghuó bian lì ye qingxiàng yú shi fùnu zài chuántong de jiatíng zhufù de juésè zhong you suo rong yú, dàn you yigè lìwài. Dangrán, zhège lìwài shì xiaohái de muqin. Zài cuìruò de suìyuè li, wéirào értóng jiànlì wendìng de jiazhang jiégòu shì jiéhun de yigè hen hao de liyóu. Ta yi héli de fangshì jiang fùmu bang zài yiqi, zhè zhong guanxì duì er tóng youlì.
C9-ALS iMNs were cultured with 10 nM inactive 3K3A-APC or 3K3A-APC for 3 days and then Hb9::RFP+ iMNs were flow purified. 3′-Digital gene expression RNA-Seq of all samples was performed by Amaryllis Nucleics. Briefly, mRNA was extracted using the NEBNext Poly(A) mRNA Magnetic Isolation Module according to the manufacturer’s instructions. 3′ RNA-Seq libraries were generated using the 3′-Digital Gene Expression RNAseq Library Kit (Amaryllis Nucleics). Libraries were sequenced on an Illumina NextSeq 500 sequencer. A total of 10 million to 25 million 80-bp, single-end reads were obtained for each sample. Reads were aligned to the Hg38 transcriptome using HISAT2 (41). A count table was obtained using FeatureCounts (42) with strand specificity enabled. Differential expression analysis was performed using DESeq2 (43). The DESeq2 sample description table used, count table, and DESeq2 results can be found in the supplemental data. The sequencing data have been deposited in NCBI’s Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) and can be accessed using GEO Series accession number GSE133162.
Sep 2017: Try the Python implementation of our large-scale GCCA work ‘‘Efficient and Distributed Algorithms for Large-Scale Generalized Canonical Correlations Analysis’’ published at ICDM 2016. The implementation is by Adrian Benton at Johns Hopkins University, who has been doing interesting works in multiview analysis and natural language processing.
Debates on the social influence of information technology have constantly been conducted around the ‘technology and democracy’ theme. The introduction of information technology, particularly the Internet, was once lauded with immense optimism and was thought to provide journalists with substantial latitude of free speech. Unfortunately, the media convergence of the Fujian press industry clearly demonstrates that the tensions between politics and technology fail to generate significant journalistic freedom in the Chinese local press industry. In fact, the logic of technology has been incorporated into the political logic such that new media outlets have assimilated the structure and routines of traditional media. This tendency is not unique to the dominant path of media convergence but prevails in every local press industry that is in pursuit of converging news production. Accordingly, the effects of such development on the ecology of China’s journalism must be further explored.
“Zhuandong luopan: Chen Jiageng he Li Guangqian de huaren lisan jingyan” 转动罗盘:陈嘉庚和李光前的华人离散经验  (Turning Compass: Diasporic Chinese Experience of Tan Kah Kee and Lee Kong Chian), presented at International Conference on “Tan Kah Kee and Lee Kong Chian: Their Significance in the Making of Modern Singapore and Malaysia,” in Singapore, organized by the National Library Board and the Tan Kah Kee Foundation, 28-29 November 2008.

Zhang, ZA, Wu, T (2014) The dual declinings of propagandist and watchdog roles: Chinese Journalists’ media role perception, the changes and antecedents (‘Xuanchuanzhe’ yu ‘jianduzhe’ de shaungchong shiwei: Zhongguo xinwen congyezhe meijie juese renzhi, bianqian ji yingxiang yinsu). Journal of International Communication (Guoji xinwenjie) 6: 61–75.


His most noted and famous work is the Preface to the Poems Composed at the Orchid Pavilion, the introduction to a collection of poems written by a number of poets during a gathering at Lanting near the town of Shaoxing for the Spring Purification Festival. The original is lost, but the work survives in a number of finely traced copies, with the earliest and most well regarded copy being the one made between c. 627-650 by Feng Chengsu, and it is located in the Palace Museum in Beijing.
In the early stages after the foundation of China, domestic journalists assumed the primary role of ‘propagators’. From the 1980s to the 1990s, China’s journalists have started to undertake other roles, such as ‘information providers’, ‘information interpreters’, ‘advocators’ and ‘profit makers’. Evidently, their professional roles have become increasingly diversified. In recent years, domestic journalists have gradually ‘returned to the essence of journalism’ in their selection of professional roles (Chen and Jiang, 2008). Most professional journalists have identified with the objective and neutral role of an ‘information provider’ (Zhang and Wu, 2014).
Moreover, the major criteria of the present press industry in Fujian regarding job performance of new media editors involve the read count of postings and the number of fans. From the perspective of journalists, behaviour that editors repeatedly demand from the frontline journalists includes nothing more than ensuring the timeliness of press release. Their compliance is somehow related to the job performance evaluation of the editors themselves, thereby resulting in the additional decline in the willingness for coordination.
In light of the relationship between newspapers and websites, Mai (2012: 118–119) classified the path of media convergence of Chinese press industry into three types: extendedly ameliorated, establishing a convergence platform with newspapers as the core without changing the mechanism of content production and the structure of press industry; new media driven, setting up a convergence platform with new media as the core to push forward newspapers to progressively transform the flow, relationship and concept of news production; and fully transformed, replacing the original structure of the press industry with a brand new structure. Of the three, the ‘extendedly ameliorated’ approach has become the dominant path of media convergence because it rarely challenges the intrinsic structural restriction of press groups.
The differences in the reactions to the encouragement between young/junior and old/senior journalists follow the same logic. Unlike young and junior journalists who hold contract positions, the old and senior journalists have substantial security from their authorised status (Bianzhi), thus rarely suffer from the effects of the living pressure of newspapers regarding current journalistic practices.

59 95% confidence interval ranged between 55 and 90%. Old Wang is only 33% likely to read commercialized papers (95% confidence ranged between 24 and 42%). A dummy variable for having travelled to countries in Europe or North America was dropped from the analysis, because it predicted the use of commercialized papers perfectly. Results can be retrieved from the author upon request.
Jenkins (2004) stressed that media convergence should be viewed as a ‘culture’ because it changed the relationship among technology, industry, market, product type and audience. By scrutinising the relationship between media institution and practitioners, the culture-oriented approach can facilitate the re-examination of the interaction mechanism between the institutional arrangement of media convergence and the logic of actors, as well as reconsideration of the social structure on a microscopic scale, thereby narrowing the gap between the media economics and media performance approaches.
However, the official belief of ‘sole responsibility for one’s own profits or losses’ that has been established since the marketisation of Chinese media industries made it impossible for the Fujian press industry to gain sustainable financial investments from the state. Hence, the present objective of media convergence has been to explore new pathways towards profitability. To date, only a few new media outlets in the Fujian press industry have garnered gains. This ‘adventitious feebleness’ in profitability is deemed by local journalists as a consequence of the ‘congenital deficiency’ in content as exacerbated by the censorship system.
*  “Aliens, Denizens, Citizens: Chinese Diaspora in Singapore,” presented at 2010 East Asian Community and Multicultural Coexistence Roundtable and the International Symposium on “Patriotism without Nationalism in the East Asian Context” in Seoul, organized by the Centre for Values and Ethics, East Asian Institute, Korea University, 14-15 October 2010.
Yuè lái yuè duo, wo chéngle yigè zìyóu jiqíng de yuángong, ta shuo he zuòle ta xiang yào de. Zhèxie lìyì hé huódòng méiyou bangzhù wo zài gonggòng jiaotong jigòu de zhíyè qiánjing. Kuàijìshi yinggai shì you tiáoli de shùzì chuli qì, ér bùshì yongyou gè zhong bianyuán yuányin de rényuán. Gèng zaogao de shì, wo zài yi gè liánhé qudòng zhong xiandé hen xianyan. Wo kaishi shou dào zaogao de gongzuò jixiào bàogào.

Because autophagy induction can enhance TDP-43 turnover in motor neurons (26), we wondered whether 3K3A-APC treatment could prevent the cytoplasmic accumulation of TDP-43 in ALS iMNs. 3K3A-APC treatment for 6 days significantly increased the nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio of TDP-43 in C9ORF72 and sporadic ALS iMNs to control levels (Figure 3, G–J; 2 controls, 2 C9ORF72 ALS, and 6 sporadic ALS patients). Thus, 3K3A-APC treatment can rescue autophagosome formation, lower DPR levels in C9ORF72 ALS iMNs and rescue DPR-mediated neurotoxicity, and reverse the cytosolic accumulation of TDP-43 in C9ORF72 and sporadic ALS patient iMNs.

For Western journalism researchers, media convergence generally refers to the ‘cooperation and collaboration between formerly distinct media newsrooms and other parts of the modern media company’ (Deuze, 2004: 140). Chinese scholars were considerably inclined to use the phrase ‘full-media’ (Quan Meiti) to describe the convergence process. Full-media, which is a term coined by Chinese media practitioners, implies a figure of oriental holism under the perspective of Chinese traditional philosophy (Ji et al., 2013). Mai (2012: 41) employed observation and in-depth interviews and defined full-media convergence as ‘a mode of structural integration of news production, dissemination and business operation on the platforms of new communication technology’.
Mùqián zuhù zài shíyi yuèdi banqian hòu, xila jìhuà jìnrù wo fángwu de lóu xià danwèi. Bùguò, ta cuòwù de rènwéi zuhù jiàng zài shíyi yuèchu chufa. Xila xiàng dangqián de fángdong tongzhi ta dasuàn banjia. Dang ta yìshí dào ta de cuòwù shí, fángdong tóngyì ràng ta liú xià yigè yuè, rúguo ta zhifùle 1400 meiyuán de zujin. Bùxìng de shì, ta méiyou xiezuò. Fángdong shou dào fatíng de mìnglìng, pòshi ta zài 11 yuè 1 rì banqian. Xila jièzhe zhège mìnglìng, huale ji tian shíjian ba suoyou de wùpin dou zhuang xiang, ba yixie jiajù hé xiangzi cúnfàng zài qíta dìfang, qíyú de dou shì wo jinjí de ràng wo zài gongyù lóu li kong de xiàol? danwèi.
“Lisan zhong de ningju: Panyu huiguan gongneng de fahui yu juxian” 离散中的凝聚:番禺会馆功能的发挥与局限 (Cohesion within the Dispersion: The Functionality of Panyu Associations), presented at the “Maritime Asia and the Chinese Overseas, 1405-2005,” The Third International Conference of Institutes & Libraries for Chinese Overseas Studies, in Singapore, organized by Inter-Agency Committee on the Chinese Overseas Databank & Research, Singapore, and Ohio University Libraries, Athens, in association with International Zheng He Society, Singapore, 18-20 August 2005.

The last two sections show some potential changes in the dominant path of media convergence adopted by the local press industry. Existing studies indicate that institutional and organisational factors considerably influence the journalists’ perception of their professional roles (Tao and Zhang, 2014; Wu et al., 1996; Zhang and Wu, 2016). Long-term attention is equally worthwhile with regard to whether the future structural adjustment of the local press industry in the area of media convergence will change the journalists’ identification of their roles.
6 J.J. Kennedy, “Maintaining popular support for the Chinese Communist Party: the influence of education and the state-controlled media,” Political Studies, Vol. 57, No. 3 (2009), pp. 517–36; Chen, X. and Shi, T., “Media effects on political confidence and trust in the People's Republic of China in the post-Tiananmen period,” East Asia: An International Quarterly, Vol. 19, No. 3 (2001), pp. 84–118.
Zhège shíhòu liánlián zài zhongguó henduo. 6 Yuè dì èr gè xingqí, wo yijing yùjì huì hé alán yiqi zouchu ximén, jiang gege de wùpin cóng éleigang zhou de bo tè lán ban dào dékèsàsi zhou de shèng'andongní'ào shì. Dàn ài lún wúfa zuòchu anpái. Jie xiàlái, wo 6 yuè 17 rì fei wang yánhú chéng, canjiale yóuta zhou puluo wò qingnián dàxué guójì bùtóng wénmíng bijiào yánjiu xuéhuì de wéiqí 3 tian de huìyì. Ránhòu,6 yuè 19 rì xingqíliù, wo fei wang boshìdùn luò gen jichang, kaiche qiánwang mian yin zhou Lewiston de qìche luguan, yibiàn zài 6 yuè 20 rì xingqírì zài mian yin zhou bù lisi tuo er canjia wo de zhínu Emily hunli.
King Goujian's army was known for scaring its enemies before battle because its front line consisted of criminals sentenced to death who committed suicide by decapitating themselves.[2] However, in the passage, "越王句踐使死士挑戰,三行,至吳陳,呼而自剄。", the literal translation of "死士" is "soldiers (who are) willing to die", not "criminals sentenced to death". "自剄" means to "commit suicide by cutting one's throat," which was a common way to end one's own life in Ancient China.[3]
Upon the death of Yunchang and the accession of Goujian, Helü seized the opportunity and launched an attack on Yue. At the Battle of Zuili (槜李之战), however, Yue defeated Wu, and King Helü was mortally wounded. Before his death, he instructed his son, the later King Fuchai of Wu, "Never forget Yue!" Yue would be defeated three years later by a resurgent Wu, and Goujian captured, to serve as Fuchai's servant for three years before he was eventually allowed to return to his native state.
Shuo shíhuà, wo zhengfúle hen shao de nurén. Wo hen nán jiejìn tamen. Wo de gè rén youxian shìxiàng ràng wo zouxiàng lìng yigè fangxiàng. Zài shengmìng de zhège jieduàn, wo de shenghuó gongzuò bi jiatíng gèng zhòngyào. Rúguo yigè nánrén keyi zài yigè you shengwàng, fùchu gaoxin de zhíyè zhong jiànlì zìji, nàme huì you henduo nurén huì faxiàn ta you xiyin lì. Hunyin hé jiatíng jiàng zài shìdàng de shíhòu gensuí.
The relationship between demographic factors with journalists’ attitude towards new media has been analysed in order to determine the variation among different types of journalists. The results of the ANOVA test indicate that gender and degree of education make no difference to the respondents’ perception about the changes or to their evaluation of new media; the type of newspaper makes no difference to the former but does influences the latter (F = 13.107, df = 1, p < .01). The results of the correlation analysis indicate that the respondents’ ages and years at work are uncorrelated to their perception but positively correlated to their evaluation of new media (r = 0.235, p < .001; r = 0.185, p < .01). Although local journalists in Fujian have generally recognised the changes brought about by new media to newspapers, those from metropolis newspapers were more inclined to provide a negative evaluation to these changes than those from party organs, whilst the older and more experienced the journalists were, the more positive evaluation they tended to provide to new media.

(a) Visualization of the 3,000 sgRNA lentiviral library expressing mCherry in infected primary mouse neurons (grey = phase contrast, red = mCherry; live cells). (b, c) Validation of target protein reduction in Cas9+ primary neurons using sgRNAs targeting Xpo5 and Tmx2. Reduced abundance of target protein in primary neurons as measured by western blot was observed after more than 10 days of sgRNA expression (sgRNA transduction performed at DIV1). (d) Forest plots of all genes considered hits from each neuron screen with a non-zero effect estimate (95% C.I.) with estimated effect in center and error bars representing 95% credible interval of the effect estimate. Effect estimate is colored in blue if the gene was protective when knocked out and colored in red if it was sensitizing when knocked out.

Dang ta zuò zài zhuo páng yu fùshou jiaotán shí, wo qizi gàosù ta, wo shì yigè bèi chong huài de fùyou de háizi, méiyou duìdài ta. Fùshou mashàng duì wo you díyì. Dang wo shìtú ba yixie pánzi hé chúfáng yòngjù dài huí fángjian shí, fùshou tíngle wo, shuo:“Ta (wo de qizi) keyi ràng ni chi zhi pán, rúguo ta xiang dehuà,” wo bù xihuan zhège huà, jiansuo wo de wùpin de shíjian xiànzhì. Wo qingqiú jing zhang de fù shouxiele yigè guanyú bèi suo zài fángzi wàimiàn de shìjiàn de bàogào, dàn ta jùjuéle.
Yòuhuò zài 2006 nián 3 yuè jìnrùle wo de naohai. Yexu shì chuntian háishì zàicì chuxiàn chángqí de xiangfa. Wo ganjué bèi kùn zài yu liányin de hunyin zhong. Ta yizhí jianchí, wo yizhí gei ta ta suowèi de “qizi de lìchang”, dàn wo xiang yào de shì yigè háizi, sìhu wúfa jiechù. Yigè xiánzhì de xiangfa daozhì lìng yigè, wo hen kuài zhìdìngle yigè jìhuà. Zài jiéhun de shíhòu, wo huì zài Craigslist shàng zuò yigè yuànyì hé wo jiéhun de nurén.
Dào mùqián wéizhi, wo suoyou de nu péngyou hé liànrén dou shì báisè de. Zhè zài 2005 nián 9 yuè you suo gaibiàn. You yitian, dang wo cóng gongzuò huí dàojia shí, wo zuò zài gonggòng qìche de hòu pái zuòwèi shàng. Yigè huópo de niánqing heirén nurén, míng jiào lín dá, zuò zài wo pángbian. Zài women de tánhuà zhong you néngliàng. Women dou zài tóng yí zhàn xià che, yiqi zou zài jie shàng. Lín dá de fángzi zài shan de zhongjian, zài zuobian. Wo jìxù zoule lìng yigè jiequ. Wo cóng ha wéi chuzu de fángzi zài yòubian de gélín bù li jie.
“En Route to the World: China Students in Singapore,” presented at the 6th Conference of the International Society for the Study of Chinese Overseas on “Recent Trends in the Relations between Chinese Abroad and Their Ancestral Homeland,” in Beijing, organized by Peking University and the International Society for the Study of Chinese Overseas, 21-23 September 2007.

3K3A-APC potently rescued autophagosome formation in C9ORF72 ALS iMNs, as determined by its ability to increase the number of GFP+mRFP+ vesicles in bafilomycin-treated iMNs (Figure 2, A and B [C9-ALS, inactive 3K3A-APC, +bafilomycin vs. C9-ALS, 3K3A-APC, +bafilomycin]; 3 controls and 3 C9ORF72 ALS patients). Interestingly, 3K3A-APC also increased autophagosome formation in sporadic ALS iMNs (Figure 2, A and C [sporadic ALS, inactive 3K3A-APC, +bafilomycin vs. sporadic ALS, 3K3A-APC, +bafilomycin]; 3 controls and 5 sporadic ALS patients, and Supplemental Figure 2B), indicating that is also capable of rescuing C9ORF72-independent autophagy impairments. Western blot analysis of C9ORF72 ALS motor neurons showed that 3K3A-APC increased the ratio of LC3-II to LC3-I in the presence of bafilomycin, verifying the results of the mRFP-GFP-LC3 assay (Supplemental Figure 2, C and D). Therefore, 3K3A-APC treatment rescues autophagosome formation in C9ORF72 and sporadic ALS iMNs.

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