Wo de l?shi, ránhòu zàicì xiàng gaodeng fayuàn qisù. Zhè yicì, duìfang rènzhen duìdài shìqíng. Zài wo tóngyì qiaole yiqian meiyuán hòu, wo gei qizi hé wo de cáichan fenpèi shénme, ta tóngyì zhèxie tiáojiàn. Ta baoliúle báixióng hú de cáichan, ér zài 1991 nián zhiqián, wo geile wo $ 32,750 - $ 9,000, yú'é cóng 1991 nián kaishi, yi bai fen zhi qi de lì shuài cóng 1991 nián kaishi. Shìshí shàng, ta ji nián hòu jiù tíngzhi zhifù zhè bi piào, érqie wo bùdé bù ba zhè bi cáichan de liúzhì quán liú gei dangshí dào qí de jin'é. Dang ta zài 2000 nián chushòu fángchan shí, jíshi wo hái qiànle qián, suoyouquán de zhuanràng yeshì rúci.

First, motor neurons derived from 6 sporadic ALS patients selected without bias toward certain genetic mutations or clinical symptoms display defects in autophagosome formation and accumulate NMDA receptors on their neurites. Both C9ORF72 and sporadic ALS iMNs exhibit these phenotypes, revealing an important area of mechanistic convergence between C9ORF72 ALS and at least some forms of sporadic ALS.
In April 1644, the Ming imperial court finally ordered Wu Sangui to move his army south from his fortress at Ningyuan to Shanhai Pass.[17] It was too late, however, and Wu would not reach Shanhai Pass until 26 April.[18] Word reached Beijing that Shun rebels were approaching the capital through Juyong Pass, and the Chongzhen Emperor held his last audience with his ministers on 23 April. Li Zicheng offered the emperor an opportunity to surrender, but the negotiations produced no result. Li commanded his forces to attack on 24 April. Rather than face capture by the rebels, the Chongzhen Emperor gathered all members of the imperial household except his sons. Using his sword, he killed Consort Yuan and Princess Zhaoren, and severed the arm of Princess Changping.
The shortcomings of this study lie in the non-random sampling method on which the survey relies and the theoretical saturation of the findings drawn from the single case. Aside from adopting better sampling techniques, future research can appeal to an editor-centric perspective to comprehensively assess the effects of media convergence. Also, future research can perform comparative analyses across regions or countries to further disclose the multiplicity of convergence effects and its relationship with the regionally and nationally specific factors.
Dàole 1 yuè xiàxún, wo gandào hen yùmèn, yinwèi sìhu wo bùnéng xiangxìn Sheila guanyú rènhé shìqíng. Ta jièle 2000 meiyuán, yòng yú zhifù lìngwài 2000 meiyuán de fèiyòng. Fùguó yínháng jiang qián tóurù fùguó yínháng zhànghù shí, yóuyú TCF tígong de “qizhà” jingshì, dòngjiéle gai zhànghù. Zhè bi qián benlái yinggai shì zài 12 yuè 30 rì fabù de, dàn zhipiào hái méiyou fachu. Suoyou zhè yiqiè sìhu duì wo lái shuo hen xing. Yexu xila méiyou gàosù wo shénme. Yexu ta shì yigè piànjú yìshùjia.
Hexanucleotide-repeat expansions in the C9ORF72 gene are the most common cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia (c9ALS/FTD). The nucleotide-repeat expansions are translated into dipeptide-repeat (DPR) proteins, which are aggregation prone and may contribute to neurodegeneration. We used the CRISPR–Cas9 system to perform genome-wide gene-knockout screens for suppressors and enhancers of C9ORF72 DPR toxicity in human cells. We validated hits by performing secondary CRISPR–Cas9 screens in primary mouse neurons. We uncovered potent modifiers of DPR toxicity whose gene products function in nucleocytoplasmic transport, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), proteasome, RNA-processing pathways, and chromatin modification. One modifier, TMX2, modulated the ER-stress signature elicited by C9ORF72 DPRs in neurons and improved survival of human induced motor neurons from patients with C9ORF72 ALS. Together, our results demonstrate the promise of CRISPR–Cas9 screens in defining mechanisms of neurodegenerative diseases.
Zài yigè yuánshi shèhuì, zhiyou dàxíng jigòu, rú zhèngfu huò sìmiào de jìsi cái nénggòu fùdan zhège yìshù zhong de rén. Wénjiàn jìlù shuìshou, fal? hétóng, zongjiào yíshì, yijí jigòu xuyào yùnzuò de qíta wénjiàn huò xìnxi. Xiàng hòulái zhongguó cháodài de rújia xuézhe yiyàng, zhangwò xiezuò jìqiao de aijí huò su mei er guanli zhe chángcháng zài dìguó guanliáo tixì zhong zhànyou gaowèi. Tamen huòdé shumiàn zhishì chéngwéi tèquán hé quánlì de láiyuán. Huòdé shìzì de kùnnán yìwèizhe zhè zhong quánlì jiang zhangwò zài shaoshù rén de shouzhong.
Tongguò jiù shìjiè de zìmu shìzì de chuánbò yu zài 6 hé 5 shìjì qíjian fasheng de xianzhe de wénhuà juéxing zhènghao xiangfan. Dangshí de shìjiè zhimíng de zhéxué jia hé zongjiào lingxiù baokuò fú, zuo luósi tè, bì dá ge la si, yi sài yà, ye lì mi, su géla di, laowo hé kongzi. Chúle zhongguó de shèngrén, rénmen keyi ba zhèxie rén yu wénzì chuánbò de zìmu xíngshì.
Lā Qiáolā (La Jolla), Jiālìfúníyàzhōu -- Wénlín Hànyǔ Xuéxí Ruǎnjiàn hé CDL zìtǐ jìshù de kāifāzhě -- Wénlín Yánjiūsuǒ, yóu yī jiā pǔtōng qǐyè (gōngsī) zhuǎnxíng chéngwéi “shèhuì mùdì gōngsī” (SPC gōngsī). Tāngmǔ Bìxiǎopǔ (Tom Bishop) zhǔxí jiěshì le zhè yī juédìng: “Wǒmen de jiàoyù shǐmìng, cǐkè, zài fǎlǜ shang, chéngwéi le wǒmen cúnzài de gēnběn yìyì. Zhè yī xīn dìngwèi wèi ràng gèngduō de rén cānyù dào wǒmen de zǔzhī zhōng pūpíng le dàolù, tóngshí jiāng wǒmen de fāzhǎn tíshēng dào xīn de shuǐpíng. Xiànzài wǒmen yǒuquán yě bìxū zài wǒmen gōngsī de zhāngchéng zhōng guīdìng: jiàoyù jí qítā shèhuì mùdì shì wǒmen de zuìgāo zōngzhǐ.” Chúle yào kuòchōng yī zhī yōuxiù tuánduì, bāokuò cídiǎn biānzuǎn, yǔyánxué, biānchéng hé jiàoyù de dǐngjiān zhuānjiā, Wénlín Yánjiūsuǒ Gōngsī SPC dǎsuàn bǎ cídiǎn hé qítā xuéxí cáiliào fābù dào wǎngshàng, ràng quánqiú fúhé zīgé de gòngxiànzhě kěyǐ xiézuò gǎishàn bìng xiūzhèng Zhòng-Yāng zīyuánkù. Gōngsī de xīn dìngwèi biǎomíng línjìn fābù de Wénlín Hànyǔ Xuéxí Ruǎnjiàn 4.2 bǎn jiāng yǔ zhòngdà shēngjí hòu de gōngsī wǎngzhàn tóngbù lóngzhòng tuīchū.
For all experiments, sample size was chosen using a power analysis based on pilot experiments that provided an estimate of effect size (http://ww.stat.ubc.ca/~rollin/stats/ssize/n2.html). Mice used for immunohistochemical analysis were selected randomly from a set of genotyped animals (genotypes were known to investigators). Mouse tissue sections used for immunohistochemical analysis were selected randomly. The sections were only not used if immunostaining failed. For iMN survival assays, iMNs from 3 biologically independent iMN conversions were used to generate the Kaplan-Meier plot shown. iMN survival times were confirmed by manual longitudinal tracking by an individual who was blinded to the identity of the genotype and condition of each sample. To select 90 iMNs per condition for analysis,more than 90 neurons were selected for tracking randomly using the images from day 1 of the assay. Subsequently, the survival values for 90 cells were selected at random using the RAND function in Microsoft Excel. For quantification of immunofluorescence, samples were quantified by an individual who was blinded to the identity of the genotype of each sample. All other quantification was performed by individuals blinded to the identity of each sample.
You huò méiyou xiangfa cúnzài? Suirán tamen bùshì zhíjie zài wùli duìxiàng zhong zhaodào de, dàn sixiang cúnzài yú yi xìliè gòngxiang gòngtóng xìngzhì de duìxiàng zhong. Bólatú rènwéi, zhè zhong lèixíng de cúnzài quèshí xiàng wùli duìxiàng nàyàng. Bólatú de lixiang, tígong móshì lái chuàngzào gè zhong dongxi, cúnzài yú yigè tiantáng ban de luójí kongjian de lingyù. Zhège shénmì de jìngjiè ye yu rénlèi de bùxiu youguan. Zuìzhong, su géla di hé bólatú guanyú yonghéng de xiangfa zài jidujiào shénxué zhong bèi zhaodàole yigè dìfang.

Wo zuìhòu yicì yu zhulì'an dì huìmiàn hen qíguài. Zhè shì zài 2011 nián 2 yuè de dì èr gè xingqí. Ji gè yuè li, wo hái méiyou kàn dào ta, ye méi ting shuoguò ta. Ta kenéng yijing qùle dé kè sà si zhou yiduàn shíjian. Wúlùn rúhé, dang wo shuìzhe de shíhòu, wo zaochén 3 dian cái jie dào diànhuà. Zhulì'an ràng wo zài gelúnbiya gaodì, dàyue wushí hé zhongyang dàdào yùjiàn ta. Ta shuo ta xuyào cóng nàli dào ta muqin zài shèngbaoluó dì dìfang. Qichu wo shuo “bù”le. Wo bùzàihu nàme qingxing de daraole. Dànshì bìjìng shì zhulì'an. Wo da diànhuà shuo wo huì zài nàli.
iMNs were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde for 1 hour at 4°C, permeabilized with PBS containing 0.5% Tween 20 (0.5% PBS-T) overnight at 4°C, blocked with 10% donkey serum in 0.1% PBS-T at room temperature for 2 hours, and incubated with primary antibodies at 4°C overnight. Cells were then washed with 0.1% PBS-T and incubated with Alexa Fluor–conjugated secondary antibodies (Life Technologies) in blocking buffer for 2 hours at room temperature. Cells were stained with DAPI (Life Technologies) or Hoechst and then mounted on slides with Vectashield (Vector Labs). Neuronal area was determined by manual outlining in ImageJ (NIH) on the basis of the staining pattern provided by TUJ1 or MAP2. Images were acquired on an LSM 800 confocal microscope (Zeiss). The following primary antibodies were used: mouse anti-HB9 (Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank, catalog 81.5C10, 1:10); mouse anti-TUJ1 (EMD Millipore, catalog AB9354, 1:1000); mouse anti-NR1 (EMD Millipore, catalog MAB363, 1:10); rabbit anti-poly(PR) (Proteintech, catalog 23979-1-AP, 1:50), rabbit anti-poly(PR) (Proteintech, catalog 23978-1-AP, 1:50), rabbit anti–TDP-43 (Proteintech, catalog 10782-2-AP, 1:200), and mouse anti-LAMP2 (DSHB, catalog H4B4, 1:4000).
YS, STH, BVZ, and JKI conceived the project. YS, STH, GR, SL, GRL, KAS, CS, YW, MC, JL, APS, BVZ, and JKI designed the experiments. YS, STH, GR, SL, GRL, KAS, CS, YW, MC, JL, and APS performed experiments and interpreted data. TS helped to perform whole-genome sequencing analysis on the ALS patient cell lines. STH performed RNA-Seq analysis. YS, STH, and JKI prepared the manuscript. YS and STH contributed equally to this work. All authors discussed the results and commented on the manuscript.
A professional company was commissioned to transcribe the anonymously processed materials. The tape scripts were then analysed in three phases. Firstly, a preliminary coding was accomplished by performing a line-by-line coding of the transcription as well as by defining the segments relevant to the issues under investigation. Secondly, new codes were formed by synthesising the preliminary codes, with focus laid on frequently occurring segments. Lastly, the new codes, between which the association was explored, were rearranged where it was used as basis for the construction of a consistent theoretical exposition.

(a) Sample distance matrix using hierarchical clustering with Euclidian distance metric of total transcriptome of each sample. (b) Principal component analysis of total transcriptome of each sample. (c) Clustered heat map showing normalized expression levels of top 40 genes sorted by adjusted p-value. All analyses were performed using DEseq2 in R (Supplementary Table 3).


Xila yu shènglùyìsi de lì nà de péngyou zài yiqi. Ta zài nàli shengbìngle, bùdé bù qù yiyuàn. Xila shuo, pèi sen de xinzàng zài nà duàn shíjian jihu tíngzhile tiàodòng. Suirán liang rén dou nénggòu huifù, dàn Payson xiànzài de tizhòng bùzú, ér Sheila de bèibù geile ta hen dà de tòngku. Ta maile yigè dà guahào lái ràoguò. Xìngyùn de shì, yisheng gàosù xila, ta xuyào chifàn, huafèi dàliàng de shíjian shuìjiào. Fanhuí mìsuli zhou de luxíng yi quxiao.
The genetic etiologies that underlie amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are diverse (1). This underscores the need to identify therapeutic targets that are broadly efficacious. The identification of pathophysiological processes that are shared between sporadic ALS patients could enable the development of broadly efficacious therapeutics. Genetic, neuropathological, and pharmacological approaches implicate aberrant proteostasis and neuronal excitability in ALS and other neurodegenerative diseases (2–6), but the mechanisms that drive defective proteostasis and hyper- or hypoexcitability in patient neurons are unclear, and it is unknown if there are therapeutic targets that will be capable of mitigating these processes in multiple different ALS subtypes.

Wúlùn rúhé, women kaiche dào míng ní abo lì si nánbù de wò er gélín, yilù dou zài shuohuà. Zhulì'an gàosù wo, ta jihu shì zài meiguó gòuwù zhòng xin bèi bu de kongbù xiányí rén. Ta yánzhe gòuwù zhòng xin fùjìn de yitiáo lù zouzhe chuanzhuó bèibao. Yi míng jing wù rényuán yaoqiú kàn ta de bèibao. Zhulì'an jùjué tóngyì. Gai guanyuán ránhòu xiang kàn dào yi zhang zhàopiàn ID. Ta méiyou. Xianrán, zhè míng junguan jianchále ta de míngzì, shénme ye méi faxiàn, suoyi ta bèi shìfàngle.
La Jolla, Jiāzhōu — Wénlín Yánjiūsuǒ yǒuxiàn gōngsī (SPC) zhèngshì fābù Wénlín Hànyǔ Xuéxí Ruǎnjiàn 4.3 háohuá bǎn (Wénlín Wánzhěngbǎn). Xīn fābù de 4.3 bạ̌nběn wánquán zhīchí wánzhěngbǎn Hànyǔ Dà Cídiǎn suọ̌yǐn, suọ̌yǐn jīngguò gēngzhèng, kuòchōng bìng àn zìmǔ shùnxù páiliè, zuòwéi fùjiā chéngxù kě yǔ Wénlín ABC cídiǎn wánměi rónghé, jǐn shòu 49 Měiyuán. Wénlín ABC HDC suọ̌yǐn ruǎnjiàn bǎn kě ràng yònghù qīngsōng chákàn HDC ruǎnjiàn zhōng dàiyǒu de 350, 000 ge duōyīnjié tiáomù. Wénlín ABC HDC kuòzhǎn chéngxù shì yī zhǒng xiānjìn de yánjiū gōngjù, gòng shōunàle chāoguò 568, 000 ge tiáomù. Tōngguò cānkǎo HDC tiáomù, nǐ kẹ̌yǐ gènghǎo de lị̌jiě hěn duō ABC dāncí (bụ̀lùn shì-fǒu chūxiàn zài HDC). Tóngyàng de, HDC hángàile xǔduō wèi shōulù zài ABC cídiǎn de tiáomù, dàn yǔ ABC cíkù jiéhé qǐlai huì gènghǎo lị̌jiě. ABC+HDC de cházhǎo gōngnéng jīngcháng huì dǎoxiàng xiāngguān xìnxī, wúlùn shì Wénlín zhíjiē lièchū de liànjiē huòshì tōngguò Wénlín xīn tuīchū de wǎngluò sōusuǒ gōngnéng. HDC suọ̌yǐn yǔ ABC Hànyǔ cídiǎn xìliè zhǔbiān Méi Wéihéng (Victor H. Mair) jiàoshòu, (láizì Bīnxīfǎníyà dàxué), xiě dào︰ "Kàndào Wénlín fābùle yǐ dānxiàng páixù zìmǔ suọ̌yǐn wánzhěngbǎn «Hànyǔ Dà Cídiǎn» de diànzǐ bǎn, wǒ fēicháng gāoxìng. Zhè duì chīmí Hànyǔ yánjiū de měi yī gèrén lái shuō quèshí shì yī ge fúyīn".
Quantification of the effect of TMX2 reduction by shRNA lentiviral transduction in two independent control iPSC lines, as performed in Fig. 7. Induced motor neurons were generated from iPSCs using a seven factor (7F) differentiation system. The survival of HB9-RFP+/shRNA-GFP+ iMNs was tracked by imaging after the addition of 10 µM glutamate to the cultures. All iMN survival experiments were analyzed by log-rank test, and statistical significance was calculated using the entire survival time course. *p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01 (survival assays were performed in triplicate with the indicated number of iMNs analyzed for each group, Supplementary Table 4).
Gan'en jié qián yitian, women de guanxì bàofa qilái. Lín dá xiang wèi women zuò yi dùn dà can. Wo juédé ta ye hen danxin láo la, yinwèi ta zhèngzài jieguan yigè nánrén. Wo shuole yixie da luàn lín dá de cuòwù fangshì, ta ba wo dadao zài lian shàng, wo ba ta dadaole. Ránhòu ta yòng daozi zài fángjian li zhuizhe wo. Dang wo baochí lengjìng shí, ta da diànhuà gei 911. Shèng bao lù jingchá láile, dài wo qù jianyù. Zhè míng guanyuán gàosù wo zài zhè zhong qíngkuàng xià yào dàibu zhè míng nánzi de xin zhèngcè. Suirán shèngbaoluó shì méiyou qisù, dàn zhè shì wo duì nán quán wèntí de xìngqù de kaishi.
Jiéshù liang zhou hòu, wo shou dàole hali sen shèqu xiéhuì weiyuánhuì de yi feng chuánpiào, gai weiyuánhuì duì wo de jiànzhú wù de fànzuì gandào guanqiè. Women dìqu de shì yìhuì dàibiao yijing zàichang. Zài huìyì shàng, wo shìtú jieshì shuo, wo yijing yù dàole zuhù, jiù rúhé jiejué zhèxie wèntí zhengqiú yìjiàn. Zhè bù fúhé weiyuán de yìjiàn. Tamen cheng wo wèi “tianzhen” hé “bùshìhé guanli chuzu wùyè”. Weiyuánhuì yaoqiú wo lìjí quzhú suoyou zuhù, bìng jiang tamen tìhuàn wèi jingguò zixì shaixuan de rényuán. Wo gàosù tamen zhè shì wo de shì, ér bùshì ta de. Wo huì juédìng caiqu shénme bùzhòu. Bùguò, zuìhòu, wo tóngyì quzhú you bèi bu zuìfàn de jìlù.

3K3A-APC potently rescued the survival of iMNs from all 3 C9ORF72 ALS lines in a dose-dependent manner (Figure 5, B and C, and Supplemental Figure 5, B and C; 3 C9ORF72 ALS patients). In contrast, 3K3A-APC did not improve the survival of control iMNs (Figure 5D and Supplemental Figure 5D; 3 controls). Activated protein C can mediate neuroprotective effects by activating PAR1 receptor signaling in neurons (20, 35) and RNA-Seq data confirmed that iMNs express high levels of the F2R gene, which encodes PAR1 (Supplemental Figure 5E). Thus, we measured C9ORF72 ALS iMN survival in the presence or absence of PAR1, PAR2, or PAR3 antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) or small-molecule antagonists. Chemical inhibition of PAR1 or PAR2 alone did not affect C9ORF72 ALS iMN survival (Supplemental Figure 5, F and G; 2 C9ORF72 ALS patients). However, PAR1 antagonist treatment blocked the ability of 3K3A-APC to rescue C9ORF72 ALS iMN survival (Figure 5E and Supplemental Figure 5H; 2 C9ORF72 ALS patients), while a PAR2 antagonist did not (Figure 5F and Supplemental Figure 5I; 2 C9ORF72 ALS patients). Consistent with these findings, ASO-mediated suppression of PAR1 significantly reduced the neuroprotective effect of 3K3A-APC on C9ORF72 ALS iMN survival (Figure 5G and Supplemental Figure 5, J and K; 2 C9ORF72 ALS patients, and Supplemental Table 3). In contrast, ASO-mediated suppression of PAR2 or PAR3 had no effect on the ability of 3K3A-APC to rescue C9ORF72 ALS iMN survival (Supplemental Figure 5, L–Q; 2 C9ORF72 ALS patients). Therefore, 3K3A-APC rescues C9ORF72 ALS iMN survival through activation of PAR1.


Jiézòu de gàiniàn cóng genben shàng pianlíle zhè zhong lijie de jìhuà. Zhèli de zhòngdian shì rén de biaoxiàn. Yigè rén de biaoxiàn qujué yú ta huò ta de jìnéng shuipíng - yigè you nàixin dì gòujiàn de xíguàn de jiégòu, yijí yu gai jìnéng de biaoxiàn xiangguan de jingshén cúnzài. Zài yùndòng jìngsài de rècháo zhong, méiyou shíjian kaol? rúhé zhíxíng lì chéng. Yùndòngyuán zhishì zuò ta. Tóngyàng de yinyuè lì chéng. Dàn yeyou yigè youxiù dì xìngnéng yu tèdìng de xiangfa xiangguan de juéqiào. Zài zhè zhong qíngkuàng xià, ta shì suíyì chuàngjiàn jiézòu de nénglì. Yiban lái shuo, chénggong chuàngzào jiézòu you shé me mìmì ma? Zhège wèntí jiàng zài ben shu de taolùn zhong taolùn.
Target de zhíyè shengyá yú 2006 nián 5 yuè jiéshù, dangshí yi míng lumang de tóngshì yòng gòuwù che fanfù pengjíle lián zài tui shàng. Ta yú liù yuèfèn zài xi lì yà dàxué bìyè dianli shàng danrèn lúnyi. Zài ben yuè wan xie shíhòu, women kaiche dào mi'er fú dé. Tongguò zhijiage huí dào míng ní abo lì si de huíchéng, yi liàng zhijiage jingchá xiaoduì pao dàole I-94 zhou jì gonglù de che shàng. Che zonggòng liánlián zàicì shòushang. Ta xùnsù dàole zhongguó.
Jinnián shì 2009 nián, dangshí wo de ayí cóng jiazhou qùshìle. Yóuyú zhàngfu yu tamen youguan, ta bèi mái zài yìndì'annà zhou nán ben dé de Studebaker jiatíng yinmóu zhong. Wo fei dào zhijiage, zule yi liàng che, jihu méiyou zài nán ben dé canting ju háng jiatíng jùhuì. Zài qiutian, wo zài beijing bàifangle lián. Women duì nèiménggu jìnxíngle zhoumò yóulan. Liú zài yigè yuán xíng de xiaowu. Wo ganmàole, yexu shì liúgan. Huí dào meiguó, wo yi zì chuàng de “xin zunyán pàiduì” paole míng ní abo lì si shì zhang. Xuanju jiéguo lìng rén shiwàng.

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Yu xilà rén bùtóng, babilún hé aijí xuézhe bìng méiyou shàngsheng dào guangyì zhishì de shuipíng. Xiangfan, tamen jìlùle jìnxíng jìshù gongzuò de zhúbù chéngxù, wúlùn shì shùxué, yixué háishì jixiè gongchéng. Tamen bianzhìle cíhuì, yàocái, gongkai jìng bài huò zhanbu de wénben hé tianwén guanchá dì lièbiao. Zhèxie xuézhe shì jiang shumiàn zhishì yìngyòng yú shíjì mùdì de jìshù rényuán. Lilùn lùnzhèng hé zhèngjù hái bùdé ér zhi.
On the event of the shipwreck in the Yangtze River last year, I sent (passengers’ identity numbers) to the editor-on-duty of the website. He said, ‘Tell me the number of (Fuzhou) people’. I told him he could roughly estimate the number by counting those identity numbers starting with ‘35’. He said, ‘You might as well help me count’. I was being busy on the spot. And I was expected to be the one managing such trivial matters! (Interviewee No. 14)
Bùguò, huí dào meiguó, wo zài 2002 nián 9 yuè 8 rì shou dàole yi feng diànzi yóujiàn, nèiróng rúxià:“Wo hen yíhàn, zhidào ni de qizi shàng cì méiyou huáiyùn... Wo zài ci tígong yixie xìnxi kaol?. Shouxian, ni hé ni qizi de niánlíng dou bù xiao, huáiyùn de kenéng xìng huì hen di, dàyue shì 10%, ér ying'ér jixíng l? ye huì hen gao. Qícì, ni de jingzi de zhìliàng hé liúdòng xìng bùshì nàme hao, ni qizi de zigong nèi mó ye bùgòu hao... Dì san, ni qizi de jiànkang bù hao, you tángniàobìng hé gao xieya, huáiyùn huì èhuà zhèxie jíbìng. Shùnyì dì,IVF de fèiyòng chaoguò 20,000 yuán, chéngxù fùzá. Xiwàng yishàng xìnxi duì nín de juédìng shì youyòng de.“
“Guxiang, guojia, shichang: Xin Ma he Xianggang Panyu huiguan de gongneng yanbian” 故乡,国家,市场:新马和香港番禺会馆的功能演变  (Homeland, State, and Market: The Changing Functions of Panyu Associations in Singapore, Malaysia, and Hong Kong) in Liao Chiyang 廖赤阳and Liu Hong  刘宏 (eds.), Cuozong yu shichang, shehui yu guojia zhijian: Dongya kouan chengshi de huashang yu Yazhou quyu wangluo 错综与市场、社会与国家之间:东亚口岸城市的华商与亚洲区域网络  (Surfing the Interfaces of Market, Society and the States: Chinese Merchants in East Asian Coastal Cities and the Making of Business Networks).  Singapore: Centre for Chinese Language & Culture, Nanyang Technological University, and Global Publishing, 2008, pp. 189-210.
Dangrán, zhè bi qián méiyou zhifù. Lìngwài yibai yuán, wo anpáile yi míng jing zhang de fùshou san tianhòu, a shén lì you zhoumò qingli ta de cáiwù. Xingqí'èr, jing zhang de dàibiao zài gongyù ménkou fale yigè tongzhi, ràng zu kè èrshísì xiaoshí banjia. Yi tianhòu, tamen huí dàole gongyù. Méiyourén zài nàli dàibiaomen liú xiàle yigè shuomíng, shuo zu kè xiànzài yijing héfa quzhúle. Rúguo you rén huí dào gongyù, zhè jiang bèi rènwéi shì rùqin de.
Wèishéme zìmu biao zhèngmíng duì wénhuà de zhè zhong cìji? Shouxian, zìmu jiaoben tongguò jiang xuyào xuéxí de fúhào shùliàng cóng shù bai huò shù qian jianshao dào dàyue liang da lái jianhuà xiezuò. Baokuò zài yuyin zhong de rènhé cíyu keyi yóu shaoliàng de zìmu zìmu ke shì dì biaoshì. Rúguo yourén bù quèdìng yigè zì shì shénme yìsi, ta keyi fachu yinjié lái ting qí dengtóng dehuà. Zhè zhong jianhuà shide gèng duo de rén keyi fangwèn.

Women de yigè wèntí shì shénme shíhòu gàosù xila de háizi ta huáiyùnle. Xila jìhuà zài wanshàng dàng women gongbù yigè tongzhi shí, wo láiguò wancan. Zhè bùduàn tuichí. Wo jingcháng zài dài dùn dàdào de fáng zi jiéshù. Suoyi, you yitian xiàwu, wo jiandan de gàosù mòlìhua zài xila de miànqián huáiyùn. Mòlìhua kaile gè wánxiào, jiùshì duì xìng fùzé xila qiángdiào ta san gè nu'ér huáiyùn de wéixian. Muqin liànxí ta jiang de shénme?
As part of a political project to seize ‘the commanding heights’ of information dissemination, namely to strengthen the traditional press’s influence in shaping public opinion, practices of media convergence within Fujian’s press groups are substantively compliant with the ‘top-down design’ that is aimed to effectively circumvent political risks and maximise fiscal investment and market return. To bypass the political minefield and manage other risks that the new media centre may encounter whilst promoting convergence, Fujian’s press groups built a three-phase censorship system of ‘editor–new media centre director–press leadership’, among many other measures. Rigorous controls over convergence risks have enabled the Fujian press industry to gain the anticipated policy bonus. For example, the new media centre, for which the Xiamen Daily Group invested over one million Yuan, significantly affected municipal leaders, thereby earning over 20 million Yuan of financial subsidies for the centre in 2015.
Wo duì nuxìng de tàidù tài bèidòngle. Wo bùshì jijí dì zhuiqiú wo suo ài de rén, ér shì qingxiàng yú ràng nurén jìnrù wo de shenghuó, kàn kàn fashengle shénme. Wo dangshí zhuyào guanzhù xiezuò hé wo de kuàijì gongzuò. Suízhe zhu dí zoule, an huíláile. Women xiàng yiqián yiyàng jìxù xiàqù. Women bù zài zài shuo hunyin, zhishì hua shíjian zài yiqi, baokuò shuìjiào shíjian.

(a-c) K562 cells treated with 10 µM PR20 subjected to RNA-seq. (a) Sample distance matrix using hierarchical clustering with Euclidian distance metric of total transcriptome of each sample. (b) Principal component analysis of total transcriptome of each sample. (c) Clustered heat map showing normalized expression levels of top 40 genes sorted by adjusted p-value. All analyses were performed using DEseq2 in R (Supplementary Table 3). (d) Fold change of select ER-stress related, differentially expressed genes determined by DEseq2 (adjusted p-value < 0.001) from RNA-seq data from primary mouse neurons treated overnight with 1.5 µM PR20 (Supplementary Table 3).


Over the course of media reform in the past four decades, economic and technological logic has definitely been significantly adherent to political logic, thereby exerting an influence under the latter’s framework. For example, propaganda has been given a high priority as a function that the Chinese media must perform throughout the process of media reform. Nevertheless, the tension between profiting and propaganda, market and state provides space for the strategic development of the media industries within China.
Through the 1630s, rebellion spread from Shaanxi to nearby Huguang and Henan. In 1641, Xiangyang fell to Zhang Xianzhong, and Luoyang to Li Zicheng. The next year, Li Zicheng captured Kaifeng.[12] The year after that, Zhang Xianzhong took Wuchang and established himself the ruler of his Xi kingdom.[10] Court officials offered a number of unrealistic proposals to stop the rebel armies, including the establishment of archery contests, the restoration of the weisuo military colony system, and the execution of disloyal peasants.[13] Li Zicheng took Xi'an in last 1643, renaming it Chang'an, which had been the city's name when it was the capital of the Tang dynasty. On the lunar New Year of 1644, he proclaimed himself king of the Shun dynasty and prepared to capture Beijing.[14]

This decision means that the Chinese media must be dedicated to Party and government propaganda whilst earning profits and seeking for industry development. This institutional framework enabled the metropolis newspapers to emphasise the function of profitability that emerged in the mid-1990s. Differing from the party organs, the metropolis newspapers have consciously catered to the preferences of the audience in terms of content, including considerable emphasis on the timeliness, relevance and interesting aspects of the news, concentration on social and personal stories and a continuous increase in the proportion of entertainment and leisure contents. Zhao (1998: 159) opined that these measures are more about supplement than disobedience to the party organs, thereby extending the official ideology further to the social, personal and even mental domains.
Wo wúfa dédào yisheng de dáfù, shuomíng wo qizi zài huáiyùn qíjian siwáng de kenéng xìng, háishì you biànxíng de ying'ér. Yexu zhè shì bù qiè shíjì de wèntí. Zài suíhòu yu xi lì yà de duìhuà zhong, wo juédìng zhè zhong qíngkuàng shì wúwàng de. Dangrán, wo bùnéng gàosù yisheng, tamen céngjing jinggàoguò kenéng daozhì liánlián siwáng de chéngxù. Wo gàosù xi lì yà wo tóngyì zài shengyù zhensuo tíngzhi zhìliáo.
Say (there is) a fire disaster, which is often reported as an explosion. We often rush to fire disasters, chatting and interviewing with firemen on the site, (to know) there are lots of detonations in fire disasters. Even if not all detonations correspond to explosion, people who have not experienced the scene would likely label the sound ‘Bang’ as explosion before recording in Weibo the ‘explosion’ of fire somewhere… (Journalists) have discrimination, which is something lacked by ordinaries. (Interviewee No. 2)
Song, S., et al. 2011. Shuzihua Yuyan Jiaoxue Huanjing: Xitong Zucheng, Jianshe Celve yu Yunxing Moshi (Digital Environment for Language Teaching and Learning: System Components, Building Strategies and Operating Modes). Waiyu Dianhua Jiaoxue (Computer-assisted Foreign Language Education) (6): 72–75. [宋述强, 陈基和, 钟晓流. (2011). 数字化语言教学环境: 系统组成, 建设策略与运行模式. 《外语电化教学》, (6): 72–75.].Google Scholar
Wo túrán chéngwéi wu suì de háizi, san gè nuhái hé liang gè nánhái, yu xila shenghuó de fùqin. Women gòng zhànjùle wo de sì gè danwèi de san gè danwèi. Xila de dà nu'ér xiàn zài zhang dàle, zhù zài bié dìdìfang. Ta de dà érzi zhù zài jie shàng. Hòulái, wo bèi zhenduàn huàn you jingshén fenliè zhèng de dìdì an dí lái dào wo pángbian de yigè danwèi zhù zài shàngcéng. Xila hé háizimen dou zài lóu xià pao. Jintian, women jiachángbiànfàn de jìyì shì háizimen zhouwéi de móhú, zài lóu xià de shafa shàng kàn diànshì, yiqi chifàn, hái you shàngban.
Contextualised within the relationship of state, media and journalists, the current study begins with a brief description of local journalists’ attitude towards new media. Thereafter, the authors discuss how local journalists perceive and evaluate media convergence, disclosing the implementation of the dominant convergence path and its influential mechanism. Consequently, this discussion lays an empirical foundation for exploring the regional diversity of China’s media convergence in the future. The following concrete questions will be discussed:

The recruitment of interviewees was conducted for two rounds. Given the demonstrative effect of the media convergence of the Xiamen Daily Group within the province and even the entire industry, the authors contacted seven media practitioners from this organisation to undergo the first round of interview. Consequently, one director, one editor and five newspaper journalists were involved as interviewees in this round. After developing a preliminary knowledge of the opinions of the Xiamen Daily Group journalists towards media convergence, the authors conducted a second round of interview. Three directors, three editors and seven journalists were recruited as interviewees from several other press groups, including Fujian Daily Group, Fuzhou Daily News Press and Quanzhou Evening News Press, thereby promoting the diversity of the interviewees in the aspect of age, years at work and newspaper type. Except for one journalist from the Fujian Daily Group who was interviewed via telephone, all the 19 others underwent face-to-face interviews (Table 1).
Yourén huì wèn: Rúguo ni ba fùqin gao yú hunyin, ni wèishéme bù líhun ni de qizi, ránhòu qu lìng yigè nénggòu sheng háizi de nurén? Zài zhèli wo kenéng fànle cuòwù. Huíxiang qilái, zhè yi xíngdòng kenéng bi shíjì fasheng de gèng hao. Nà shíhòu, wo juédé wo qizi fàngqì ta shì bù kenéng de, yinwèi ta zài ye bù huì you háizile. Zhè bùshì ta de cuò. Bù, wo bù huì yinwèi zhège yuányin jùjué wo de qizi. Xiangfan, wo huì mìmì anpái yigè háizi yu lìng yigè nurén, ránhòu, zài hái zi chusheng hòu, wo huì ràng wo de qizi juédìng ta xiang zuò shénme. Rúguo ta juédìng líhun, wo huì yi qingjié liángxin jieshòu ta de juédìng.

Julianne hé wo ou'er zài 2010 nián jiànguò. Sìhu women kenéng zuìzhong chéngwéi liànrén. You yi dian - wo yijing wàngjìle shénme shíhòu - zhulì'an tóngyì huí dào wojia, suoyi women keyi yiqi zài yiqi, dàn hòulái ta jìdé ta yijing dayìngle a shén lì zài bié dì dìfang. Suoyi women ba huódòng tuichí dào yigè cóng wèi dàoguò de shíqí. Wu yuèfèn, wo gàosù ta, wo qídàizhuó lìng yigè nurén chéngwéi fùqin. Xiànzài bùyào ba Julianne tui xiàng zhège fangxiàng.
Wo xiànzài kaishi duì xila shijia yalì, yi quèrèn huáiyùn. Ta ba zhè zuòwéi lìng yicì rén shen gongjí, ta wèi ci zuò liao rúci jùdà de xisheng. Bùguò, ta zuìzhong anpái shou dào zhensuo dí quèrèn xìn. Sheila hé wo kaiche qùle Cottage Grove de Allina yiliáo zhensuo. Zài wo tíngche de shíhòu, xila zou jìnle dàlóu, hen kuài jiù zài xìnfeng limiàn xiele yi feng xìn. 2011 Nián 5 yuè 19 rì de xìn biaoshì:“Sheila xxxxx zài women bàngongshì you 2010 nián 5 yuè de zhèngmiàn huáiyùn cèshì. Huáiyùn yi yú 2010 nián 12 yuè zhongzhi.“Zhè shì yóu ANP de MSN de Linda Auleciems qianmíng de.
Zài 1973 nián wo jiéhun ka luó er zhiqián, wo yu yigè míng jiào zhu dí de niánqing nuzi youzhe jiqíng de guanxì, chíxùle haoji gè yuè. Ji nián hòu, wo zàicì tongguò xiànzài zhù zài jialìfúníya zhou de fùmu yu ta liánxì. Zài 1987 nián de dongtian, zhu dí da diànhuà shuo ta xiang bàifang wo. Ta bàoyuàn ta xiànzài de nán péngyou dài fu, yigè zài xingqiú dàzhàn xiàngmù shàng gongzuò de shùxué jia. Zhè dangrán shì duì wo yu an dì guanxì zàochéngle yalì. Bùguò, wo huanyíng zhu dí de fangwèn, bìng zhunbèi ràng ta zài bèiyòng fángjian dòuliú ji tian. Zhu dí dàodá jichang yigè dà shùgàn. Xianrán zhè cì fangwèn jiang chíxù yiduàn shíjian.
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