Starting from the emergence of online newspapers, traditional media departments, particularly their leadership, were rather ‘antagonistic’ against new media departments based on the concerns over newspaper circulation. Nevertheless, the competitive relationship between the two types of departments remained unclear because new media departments were situated in a relatively marginalised position inside the press industry. After media convergence along the dominant path was officially launched, original new media departments have been integrated into the new media centre. Vast financial support, manpower and material investments were put to the new media centres of the Fujian press industry, which had reinforced the position of new media department as a ‘rival’ to newspaper offices.
For all other experiments, analyses of iMN samples were performed with the statistical software package Prism Origin v.7.0a (GraphPad Software). The normal distribution of data sets was tested by the D’Agostino-Pearson omnibus normality test. Differences between multiple groups were analyzed using 1-way ANOVA with Tukey’s correction for all comparisons, unless the data were non–normally distributed for which nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis testing was used. Mean and standard deviation or standard error of the mean was used for normally distributed data sets, and the median and interquartile range were used for non–normally distributed data sets. Differences between 2 groups were analyzed using a 2-tailed Student’s t test, unless the data were non–normally distributed, in which case 2-sided Mann-Whitney testing was used. Significance was assumed at P < 0.05.
Wo zài 2010 nián 5 yuè xiàxún shousuole saixiàn yán, dangshí wo de ji zhang zhàopiàn bèi zhongzhàng de xiàn ti dài zou. Beijiao de yi míng yisheng wúfa lijie, dàn bailaohuì dàxué zhensuo de yisheng ye méiyou. Ta wèn wo shìfou you wo de shengzhíqì ganjué, wo zuòle. Yi liang gè yuè hòu, zhongzhàng xiaoshile, dàn wo dì xìng'ài yeshì rúci. Wo danxin yi míng laonián rén de saixiàn yán huì daozhì bù yù zhèng. Zhè ràng wo gèngjia xinshang xila huáiyùnle.
Generally, the journalists’ reluctance to collaborate can be explained under the binary structure of ‘traditional media versus new media’, which is manifested at three levels. At the institutional level, the antithesis of traditional media versus new media is represented as the schism between ‘inside the system’ and ‘outside the system’. Given the impact of new media and the existing ideological control, the Fujian press industry has opted to sacrifice part of its economic gains for political security, which is also an option for journalists ‘inside the system’. At the organisational level, the antithesis is manifested as the enmity between the traditional and the new media departments. Divergent interests have made the leaders and journalists of metropolis newspapers less willing to cooperate with the centre compared with their counterparts from the party organs. At the individual level, the binary structure is manifested as the competition between professional journalists and other we-media runners. Faced with challenges from non-professional information providers, most journalists opt to follow their occupational boundaries and refrain from adding their voice to the new media.
Prompts from new media centre editors that ‘users responded intensely’ are often believed as too trivial to be ‘worth writing about’, hence are ultimately ignored by journalists. Editors blame the journalists’ reaction on lack of awareness, that is, journalists lack knowledge of new media, underestimate the intensity of competition between the press industry and commercial new media and overlook user demands. In fact, journalists expressed their concern regarding increasingly intense market competition in both the survey and in-depth interviews. They sensed that when various types of newspapers obtain news clues from new media and as reportage becomes increasingly homogenised, newspapers are confronted with increasingly intense competition.
After filling the gap in policy, advertising has significantly promoted its proportion in media revenue. As of October 1992, domestic newspapers that achieved financial independence had accounted for one-third of the nationwide total (Zhao, 1998: 50). Since then on, advocating and promoting economic development and strengthening of media industry have become a dominant agenda of China’s media reform.
Zài zhongguó zhi xíng zhong, wo céng wènguò youyi míng wèihun mèimei de daoyóu, shìfou you kenéng huì yùjiàn yi míng zhongguó nuzi wéi hunyin mùdì. Zhè zhishì yigè cháxún. Dangrán, wo háishì hé xila jiéhun, dàn wèntí zàiyú women de guanxì fazhan. Zhongguó daoyóu hòulái chéngwéi tiánnàxi dàxué zài chá ta nu jia de xuésheng. Zài shenghuó zài zhège chéngshì de shíhòu, ta zài yigè shèjiao jùhuì shàng yù dàole yigè zhongguó nurén, ta shuo jiejie you xìngqù jià gei yigè meiguó rén. Zhè jiùshì wo yù dàole wo de dì san rèn qizi. Daoyóu da diànhuà gei wo, hé wo liánxì de jiejie, ta xiàng wo fasòngle yigè hen kuài chéngwéi wo qizi de nurén de liánxì fangshì. Zài yóujiàn liánxì bùjiu zhihòu, wo anpái zài beijing bàifang ta.
Males and females accounted for 49.6% and 50.4%, respectively, of the total number of respondents. The respondents with a degree of and below junior college accounted for 1.8%, those with bachelor’s degree accounted for 83.5% and those with a master’s degree or above accounted for 14.7%. Among the respondents, 33.2% came from party organs, whilst 66.8% came from metropolis newspapers. The mean age of the respondents was 31 years old (M = 30.63, SD = 6.35) and the mean number of years at work was 8 (M = 7.62, SD = 6.50).
After the Chongzhen Emperor's death, loyalist forces proclaimed a Southern Ming dynasty in Nanjing, naming Zhu Yousong (the Prince of Fu) as the Hongguang Emperor. In 1645, however, Qing armies started to move against the Ming remnants. The Southern Ming, again bogged down by factional infighting, were unable to hold back the Qing onslaught, and Nanjing surrendered on 8 June 1645. Zhu Yousong was captured on 15 June and brought to Beijing, where he died the following year. The dwindling Southern Ming were continually pushed farther south, and the last emperor of the Southern Ming, Zhu Youlang, was finally caught in Burma, transported to Yunnan, and executed in 1662 by Wu Sangui.
In particular, the Chongzhen Emperor's execution of Yuan Chonghuan on extremely flimsy grounds was regarded as the decisively fatal blow. At the time of his death, Yuan was supreme commander of all Ming forces in the northeast, and had just rushed from the borders to defend the capital against a surprise Manchu invasion. For much of the preceding decade, Yuan had served as the Ming Empire's bulwark in the north, where he was responsible for securing Ming borders at a time when the Empire was suffering humiliating defeat after defeat. His unjust death destroyed Ming military morale and removed one of the greatest obstacles to the eventual Manchu conquest of China.
As an alternative to the 7F iMN differentiation procedure used in Fig. 7 and S8, iMNs were differentiated from C9-ALS and control iPSC lines using a Dox-NIL system. (a, b) Survival of Dox-NIL iMNs with or without TMX2 reduction by shRNA transduction. Results from two control (a) or two C9-ALS (b) lines were averaged to create the survival curves shown. (c, d) The same iMN data depicted in (b) but separated by individual C9-ALS cell line to show the variability in responses. (e) Representative images of GFP+ (shRNA expressing) C9-ALS iMNs taken during the survival experiments. (f) RNA was harvested from iMN survival experiments at the endpoint and TMX2 mRNA levels were measured by qRT-PCR (normalized to GAPDH levels). For information on the patient lines used and numbers of iMNs analyzed for survival analysis, see Supplementary Table 4.
Zuòwéi ben famíng de jiéguo, rénlèi xiànzài you yi zhong fangshì lái jì zhù yi zhè zhong fangshì jìlù de suoyou shuo chu de cíyu. Jìyì shì yongjiu de hé jingquè de. Quedian shì dàliàng de fúhào. Mei gè cíyu xuyào yigè xiangyìng de shumiàn yuyán. Rúguo you yi wàn gè shuo chu de cí, xuyào xiangtóng shùliàng de shuxie fúhào. Zhè shì yigè jianjù de rènwù, xuéxí yuèdú hé xie zhème duo bùtóng de fúhào.
Xila, dà wèi hé háizimen ban dào kentaji zhou de lùyìsi wéi'er. Tamen zài nàli yijing you liang niánle. Dà wèi yuánlái shì yigè xidú zhe, xila huòdéle líhun. Ránhòu, ta hé ta de háizimen ban dàole nèihuádá zhou la si wéi jia si, zài nàli zhùle liang nián. Nà shí wo jihu méiyou jiechùguò ta. Tóngshí, zài yijiujiujiu nián qi yuèdi de xingqíliù shàngwu, wo faxiàn wo dìdì tang zài ta de shenghuó danwèi dì dìban shàng, cóng wo de dàting kai lái. Ta yin ganmào ér siwáng. an dí de yí ow hen kuài jiù hé fùjìn de lìng yigè nánrén jiechùle. Yiqian nián jiéshù hòu, wo zìji líkaile, lìng yigè kaishile.
65 The coefficient of the interaction term was not statistically significant because of the small n of the treatment group. This indicates that we cannot be 95% certain that we would retrieve similar results over repeated samples. However, the dynamics are similar when comparing Beijingers' use of the internet and newspapers, thus further providing evidence that “new” media are more effective than “old” media in appeasing citizens. See Stockmann, “What kind of information does the public demand?”
Ài lún gàosù wo, zhulì'an dì fùqin shí nián qián bèi Cottage Grove jingchá sha sile. Yiqián, zhège jiatíng yijing wánhao wúsunle. Rán'ér, ta fùqin de siwáng shi yiqiè dou dòngluàn. Ta jingcháng zhù zài bìhù suo. Wo wèn zhulì'annà guanyú ta de fùqin. Ta méiyou liyóu bèi jingchá lache, bèi guan jìn jianyù. Yigè 6 yingchi gao 5 yingcùn de nánzi, jùshuo ta ba zìji guà zài yigè jianyù láofáng li, tianchí méiyou tài gao. Ta de shushu huyù jìnxíng diàochá, dàn méiyou faxiàn rènhé shìqíng.
(A–C) Immunostaining (A) and quantification (B and C) to determine endogenous poly(GR)+ punctae in control or C9-ALS iMNs with 10 nM inactive 3K3A-APC or 3K3A-APC treatment for 6 days. Quantified values represent the average number of nuclear poly(GR)+ punctae in n = 30 iMNs (controls) or 40 to 44 iMNs (C9-ALS) per line per condition from 2 control or 2 C9-ALS patient lines. For each line, iMNs were quantified from 2 independent iMN conversions per line per condition. Median ± interquartile range. Each gray circle represents the number of poly(GR)+ punctae/unit area in a single iMN. Mann-Whitney testing. Solid and dotted lines in A outline the cell body and nucleus, respectively. Scale bars: 5 μm. (D and E) Dot blot (D) and quantification (E) of poly(GR)+ levels in iMNs from 2 C9-ALS patient lines with 10 nM inactive 3K3A-APC or 3K3A-APC treatment for 6 days. Each gray circle represents 1 dot blot sample. Mean ± SD. n = 3 independent iMN conversions per line per condition. One-way ANOVA with Tukey’s correction across all comparisons. (F) Survival of control iMNs without excess glutamate with overexpression of eGFP or GR(50)-eGFP and 10 nM inactive or active 3K3A-APC. n = 90 iMNs per condition, iMNs quantified from 3 biologically independent iMN conversions. Two-sided log-rank test, corrected for multiple comparisons, statistical significance was calculated using the entire survival time course. n = 90 iMNs per condition. (G–J) Immunofluorescence analysis of total TDP-43 (G) and quantification of the ratio of nuclear to cytoplasmic TDP-43 in control, C9-ALS (H), or sporadic ALS iMNs (I and J). Ratio of nuclear to cytoplasmic TDP-43 in individual C9-ALS iMNs treated with 10 nM inactive 3K3A-APC or 3K3A-APC for 6 days. iMNs from 2 controls, 2 C9-ALS, and 4 sporadic ALS patients were quantified. n = 30 iMNs per line (control and C9-ALS) per condition or n = 26 iMNs (I), 30 iMNs (J) (inactive 3K3A-APC), or n = 35 iMNs (J) (3K3A-APC) (sporadic ALS) per condition per line from 2 biologically independent iMN conversions were quantified. Each gray circle represents a single iMN. For H, median ± interquartile range. Kruskal-Wallis testing. For I and J, mean ± SEM. Unpaired t test with Welch’s correction. Scale bars: 5 μm. Dotted lines outline the nucleus and cell body. The day of differentiation stated on each panel indicates the day of differentiation on which the experimental treatment or time course was initiated.
“Guxiang, guojia, shichang: Xin Ma he Xianggang Panyu huiguan de gongneng yanbian”故乡，国家，市场：新马和香港番禺会馆的功能演变 (Homeland, State, and Market: The Changing Functions of Panyu Associations in Singapore, Malaysia, and Hong Kong) presented at ‘the Workshop on "Surfing the Interfaces of the Market, Society and the State: Chinese Social Organizations in Asian Port Cities and the Making of Business Networks” in Singapore, organized by Asia Research Institute, National University of Singapore, 30-31 March 2002.
Dang wo zài yijiujiu'èr nián liù yuè de gé lún wudé dàjie 1702 hào gòumai fángwu shí, wo zhidào wo zài mai shénme fángzi. Zhège wùyè hen piányí, dànshì wo ba henduo qián dou hái gei bèi chaichú de tóng guan, bìng chéngbao qíta de gongzuò. Wánchéng. Yi nián yihòu, zài yijiujiusan nián ba yuè, wo zài gébì gòumaile yigè dúpin jiu tào fángwu. Bùguò, wo yi 72,000 meiyuán de jiàgé gòumaile zhè zuò jiànzhú, róngzi yibàn, bìng qiandìng qìyue.