The press groups in Fujian have adopted the extendedly ameliorated path of media convergence. Firstly, they hired a technology company to establish a platform for converging news production. Secondly, a new media centre was established. Thirdly, a group of editors from the press newsroom were transferred to the centre to handle the new media outlets, particularly the website, Weibo, Wechat and APP. Lastly, a process reconstruction of the news production was undertaken by uniformly importing information from multiple sources into the centre for processing and delivering to new media outlets.
67 The side with higher audience costs is less likely to back down in a foreign crisis and therefore able to signal its intentions to other states more credibly than states with lower audience costs. Fearon, J.D., “Domestic political audiences and the escalation of international disputes,” American Political Science Review, Vol. 88, No. 3 (1994), pp. 577–92. Weiss, “Powerful patriots: nationalism, diplomacy and the strategic logic of anti-foreign protest.”
Wo zìji jihu méiyou zhèngjù biaomíng xila de huáiyùn. Zuìchu de huáiyùn cèshì dangrán shì. Zhongzhàng kaishi qián ji gè yuè, wo yijing kàn dào ta de luoti. Sancì xila yijing anpái wo hé ta yiqi qù zhensuo chákàn chaoshengbo. Mei cì yuehuì bèi quxiao. Yidàn women yù dàole qìche de máfan, yidàn xila bù xiangxìn wo huì cóng lutú zhong fanhuí, yidù shì yigè bèi yíwàng de yuányin. Xila yizhí zài tánlùn ta néng ganshòu dào de xiao Payson. Chúle ta sìhu zài jiazhòng de guanchá zhi wài, wo bù zhidào Sheila suo shuo de shì zhenshí de.
Over the course of media reform in the past four decades, economic and technological logic has definitely been significantly adherent to political logic, thereby exerting an influence under the latter’s framework. For example, propaganda has been given a high priority as a function that the Chinese media must perform throughout the process of media reform. Nevertheless, the tension between profiting and propaganda, market and state provides space for the strategic development of the media industries within China.
Suirán wo bù zhidào zhège nurén shì shéi, dànshì ji gè xingqí hòu wo cái kàn dào ta zài lóu xià de zouláng li. Wo jíjiang hé péngyou yiqi qù dàxué, kàn yingwén zìmù de wàiguó diànying. Zhège nurén shuo ta ye xihuan dài zìmù de diànying. Women.Le yixià zhège. Nà nurén wèn wo shìfou you xìngqù “yuehuì” ta. Kenéng shèjí “fèiyòng”. Yinci, ta sìhu kenéng shìgè jìnu. Wo shuo wo duì shoufèi bùgan xìngqù, dàn kenéng huì chuántong shàng shuo. Bùguò, ji tian hòu, dang wo qiao mén shí, wo yijing “jiè”le yixie qián.
Consistent with our previous studies (4, 8), a 12-hour pulse treatment of 10 μM glutamate induced significantly faster degeneration of C9ORF72 patient iMNs compared with controls (Figure 1, B [individual lines shown] and C [iMNs from all control or patient lines combined into a single trace for clarity], and Supplemental Figure 1, J and K). Glutamate treatment was not strictly required to elicit this effect, as withdrawal of neurotrophic factor supplementation also selectively induced the rapid degeneration of C9ORF72 patient iMNs without glutamate treatment (Figure 1D and Supplemental Figure 1L). Thus, ALS-causing mutations can cause iMNs to degenerate significantly faster than those from controls.
In light of the relationship between newspapers and websites, Mai (2012: 118–119) classified the path of media convergence of Chinese press industry into three types: extendedly ameliorated, establishing a convergence platform with newspapers as the core without changing the mechanism of content production and the structure of press industry; new media driven, setting up a convergence platform with new media as the core to push forward newspapers to progressively transform the flow, relationship and concept of news production; and fully transformed, replacing the original structure of the press industry with a brand new structure. Of the three, the ‘extendedly ameliorated’ approach has become the dominant path of media convergence because it rarely challenges the intrinsic structural restriction of press groups.
Duòtai hòu, an hé wo cónglái méiyou yiqiguò ài. Ta jieguò yigè xin de nán péngyou shi dì fu, bù tíng de zài diànhuà li gen wo shuohuà. Ji nián hòu, wo ou'er huì shou dào diànhuà. Ránhòu hujiào tíngzhi. Wo zhongyú zhàohuànle shénjing, jiào ta dí gege xúnwèn an. Xiongdì zài yuànzi li chulái, dàn ta de qizi gàosù wo, an yú 2004 nián 1 yuè qián ji nián si yú áizhèng. Ta bèi máizàng zài si niè dé bao gongmù.
Though holding relatively positive attitude towards new media as revealed in the survey, local journalists in Fujian’s press groups did not embrace the convergence with new media enthusiastically. The main change brought about with the convergence, after the establishment of the new media centre and the reconstruction of the news production workflow within Fujian’s press groups, is the journalists being currently expected to feed news to the centre so that the gap of contents for the new media outlets will be filled. During the interviews, directors, editors and journalists unanimously agreed that media convergence enhanced the requirements for timeliness and accuracy of news production as well as increased the intensity of journalists’ workload, but failed to radically alter the methods of selecting and writing news, thereby bearing no significant influence on journalists. A few journalists indicated their willingness to commit immediately to the convergence of news production; however, other journalists refused to cooperate with the new media centre.
In September 1992, the Fifth Plenary Session of the 14th Central Committee recommended that the main direction in future adjustments of the industrial structure should be to ‘actively promote the tertiary industry’. In 1993, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the State Council officially included the media industry in the tertiary industry in the Decisions on Accelerating Development in the Tertiary Industry, while maintaining this industry’s attributes as a propaganda and administrative institution.
Retrovirus encoded by pMXs-mRFP-GFP-LC3 was transduced into converting iMN cultures 1 day after transduction with iMN reprogramming factors. On day 17, iMNs were treated with 50 nM bafilomycin and 10 nM inactive 3K3A-APC, 10 nM 3K3A-APC, 10 μM DMSO, or 10 μM rapamycin (Sigma-Aldrich, R8781-200UL) in combinations described in the text and figure legends for 24 hours before being fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde at 4°C for 1 hour. Motor neuron cultures were immunostained to detect HB9 levels using a mouse anti-HB9 antibody (Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank, 1:10 dilution) at 4°C for 48 hours. Coverslips were imaged on a Zeiss LSM 800 confocal microscope. Quantification was performed using ImageJ.
Yóuyú shougao chaoxie yuán shengchan yi fèn wénben de danyi fùben, gùyòng jiàoduì yuán jianchá ta de gongzuò de zhunquè xìngshì bù jingjì de. Dànshì, rúguo dayìnji yi xiangtóng de xíngshì chuàngjiànle shù qian fèn xiangtóng wénben de fùben, nàme zixì jianchá zhèxie jiàoyàng shì zhídé de, yinwèi cuòwù huì bèi chéng yi duo cì. Yinci, zài yìnshua gémìng zhiqián chuàngzào de shougao baohán gè zhong pinxie, biaodian hé yufa jiégòu. Lìrú, shashìbiya de tóngshídài rén yòng ji zhong bùtóng de fangshì pinxiele ta de xìng shì. Rán'ér, rénmen bù yìng gai tongguò yìnshua wénhuà de biaozhun lái pànduàn zhè yi shíqí de zuòjia. Zengqiáng de kòngzhì wénben de zhìliàng de nénglì daozhì gèng dà de yizhì xìng hé tèzheng de biaozhunhuà.
In September 1992, the Fifth Plenary Session of the 14th Central Committee recommended that the main direction in future adjustments of the industrial structure should be to ‘actively promote the tertiary industry’. In 1993, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the State Council officially included the media industry in the tertiary industry in the Decisions on Accelerating Development in the Tertiary Industry, while maintaining this industry’s attributes as a propaganda and administrative institution.
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