The Manchus were quick to exploit the death of the Chongzhen Emperor: by claiming to "avenge the emperor," they rallied support from loyalist Ming forces and civilians. The Shun dynasty lasted less than a year with Li Zicheng's defeat at the Battle of Shanhai Pass. The victorious Manchus established the Shunzhi Emperor of the Qing dynasty as ruler of all China. Because the Chongzhen Emperor had refused to move the court south to Nanjing, the new Qing government was able to take over a largely intact Beijing bureaucracy, aiding their efforts to displace the Ming.[22]


Lín dá duì zìji zài xuduo bùtóng qíngkuàng xià de pingé gan hen gan xìngqù. Ta kenéng shì yigè nu tóngzhì míni míngrén, yigè you bàofù de geshou, yigè heirén de gònghédang rén hé yigè qiángdà de nánrén de qíngfù. (Ta de zhuancháng zhèngzài péiyang yu NFL zhu jiàoliàn hé gao jíbié zhèngzhì jia de guanxì.) Ta zài bùshí 41 suì de shíhòu chéngwéi báigong shíxí sheng, dànshì dang ta tóusù zhongzú qíshìshí, ta bèi fàngkuanle zhège zhíwèi. Zài women de diànhuà zhong, ta shuo ta ganggang yù dàole kèla lún si·tuomasi. Tongguò ta, youxìng fangwènle yixie zhimíng rénshì dì gèrén shenghuó.

Guanyú zìwo yìshí de zhutí, shouxian rènshi dào ta shì jiézòu de dírén. Ta shì yi zhong fushí xìng de yingxiang, daozhì jiézòu shiqù. Jiézòu de biaoxiàn xuyào mou zhong zhùyì lì, jízhong zài sixiang de nèibù yàosù yuqí zhíxíng ér bùshì zhèngzài zhíxíng de lì chéng. Zhùyì rènhé shìqíng shì yi zhong fenxin, daozhì jízhong shiqù. Biaoyan zhe bùnéng zhùyì zìji huò ta de yùndòng, bìng qiwàng biaoxiàn liánghao. Ta bìxu shiqù biaoyan benshen.
The definition of full-media convergence is similar to that of media convergence that was developed in light of current practices in Europe and the US. However, as Menke et al. (2016) argued in their comparative study of European convergence journalism, the processes of convergence depend on national and cultural factors, thereby resulting in different convergence practices within specific newsrooms. To gain an improved understanding of the current convergence in China, the factors that make China’s case substantially different from Europe and the US must be considered.

Women dàodále Walgreen de shangdiàn. Wo xiàng Julianne fabiaole yi fèn shengmíng gei zhíban jingli. Ta yuánlái ta yijing kànguòle. Zhulì'an maile 6 bao xiangyan, yào wo fù qián. Ránhòu, ta hé wo kaiche qiánwang dì wu dàdào dì meiguó yínháng zìdòng guìyuánji, wo chèhuíle 400 meiyuán, bìng jiang xiànjin jiao geile ta. Women huí dàole muqin de jia. Jihu wanshàng 10 dian
A previous study found that in postmortem tissue from sporadic ALS patients, motor neurons may have had lower levels of NMDA receptors (37). However, this may be because the motor neurons containing the highest amounts of NMDA receptors were most vulnerable to degeneration. Alternatively, the patients examined postmortem in this study may have differed from the patients in our cohort. This highlights the importance of expanding the number of sporadic ALS patient iPSC lines.
Jími ránhòu qù dàndào. Pilù ta bèi bu shí, wo yijing qinfànle ta de yinsi quán. Ta huì qisù wo dang wo zhàn zài nàli wúyu shí, jími jian jiàozhe dà han dà jiào yi liang fenzhong. Túrán, yigè meilì de niánqing heirén nurén chuxiàn zài ta shenhòu de ménkou, bìng shuo:“Ràng ta yigè rén, jími. Ta zhishì zài zuò ta de gongzuò.“Zhè you yigè píngjìng de xiàoguo. Jími ná qi wo de zhi, wo guanshàngle mén.
Suoyi kaishile wo shengmìng zhòng zuì youqù de làngmàn hé wénhuà màoxian zhi yi. Lín dá jíshí tongzhi wo, ta shìgè nu tóngzhì. Ta yeshì zài dì yi dàjie yíngdéle wángzi diànying “zi yu” de changmiàn de geshou. Ta lái dàole shuang chéng, kàn kàn ta shìfou kenéng huì hé wángzi huò ta de tóngbàn liánxì zài yiqi, yexu shì tongguò ta yù dào de gushou. (Suirán bù chénggong, wu nián zhihòu, ta zài fangwèn zhong gèng xìngyùn, shènzhì ràng wo jìnrùle Chanhassen pèisi lì gongyuán de wángzi shenyè pàiduì zhi yi.) Lín dá céngjing zài shènglùyìsi yongyou zìji de yuèduì, dàn shèbèi bèi cuihui ta bìxu yi qíta fangshì huifù ta de zhíyè shengyá.
Debates on the social influence of information technology have constantly been conducted around the ‘technology and democracy’ theme. The introduction of information technology, particularly the Internet, was once lauded with immense optimism and was thought to provide journalists with substantial latitude of free speech. Unfortunately, the media convergence of the Fujian press industry clearly demonstrates that the tensions between politics and technology fail to generate significant journalistic freedom in the Chinese local press industry. In fact, the logic of technology has been incorporated into the political logic such that new media outlets have assimilated the structure and routines of traditional media. This tendency is not unique to the dominant path of media convergence but prevails in every local press industry that is in pursuit of converging news production. Accordingly, the effects of such development on the ecology of China’s journalism must be further explored.

“Nuxing yimin de juese: Zhongguo peidu mama zai Xinjiapo” 女性移民的角色:中国陪读妈妈在新加坡 (The Role of Female Migrants: The Role of Study Mamas in Singapore), presented at the conference on “Migration in China and Asia: Experience and Policy,” in Beijing, organized by the Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, and Metropolis International, 20-21 May 2010.


Contextualised within the relationship of state, media and journalists, the current study begins with a brief description of local journalists’ attitude towards new media. Thereafter, the authors discuss how local journalists perceive and evaluate media convergence, disclosing the implementation of the dominant convergence path and its influential mechanism. Consequently, this discussion lays an empirical foundation for exploring the regional diversity of China’s media convergence in the future. The following concrete questions will be discussed:
Wo de yuànwàng de zìsi bùfèn shì ràng yigè háizi cóng wo shenshang yíchuán xiàlái. Wo juédé zhè hen zhòngyào - yexu shì yinwèi wo yiwéi wo zài yíchuán shàng bi qíta rén gèng hao? Bi chángjiu cúnzài gèng hao de xiangfa. Tongguò yigè háizi, wo si hòu huì cúnzài yidìng de chéngdù. Zài shengwù xué shàng, wo de shenghuó jiang huì zhòngyào. Jíshi wo de háizi zài wo zou liao zhihòu bìng méiyou baoliú huò zunzhòng wo de jìyì, suoyi wo yongyuan bù huì wánquán cóng xià yidài hé hòulái de rén zhong tuolí chulái. Shì de, xiang yào jianchí zìji de shenfèn, you yidian shì zìsi de, ér bùshì zhenzhèng zhòngyào de yidian.
Debates on the social influence of information technology have constantly been conducted around the ‘technology and democracy’ theme. The introduction of information technology, particularly the Internet, was once lauded with immense optimism and was thought to provide journalists with substantial latitude of free speech. Unfortunately, the media convergence of the Fujian press industry clearly demonstrates that the tensions between politics and technology fail to generate significant journalistic freedom in the Chinese local press industry. In fact, the logic of technology has been incorporated into the political logic such that new media outlets have assimilated the structure and routines of traditional media. This tendency is not unique to the dominant path of media convergence but prevails in every local press industry that is in pursuit of converging news production. Accordingly, the effects of such development on the ecology of China’s journalism must be further explored.
Yu yiqián jièshào de jingyàn yiyàng, wo de cháxún cóng wèi daozhìguò rìqí. Ji gè nurén yòu rén de tíyì zuò mou xie shìqíng, dàn wo yongyuan bùnéng ba tamen fàng zài yigè shíjian hé dìdian jiànmiàn. Bùxiang fachu gè rén diànhuà hàoma huò diànzi yóujiàn dìzhi, women zhèngzài tongguò women de dàima míngcheng zài wangzhàn nèi jìnxíng tongxìn. Zuìzhong, women bìxu xianghù xìnrèn xiangguan de xìnxi, zúyi anpái zài ròuti shàng ju háng huìyì. Nà zhong qíngkuàng cónglái méiyouguò.
3K3A-APC potently rescued autophagosome formation in C9ORF72 ALS iMNs, as determined by its ability to increase the number of GFP+mRFP+ vesicles in bafilomycin-treated iMNs (Figure 2, A and B [C9-ALS, inactive 3K3A-APC, +bafilomycin vs. C9-ALS, 3K3A-APC, +bafilomycin]; 3 controls and 3 C9ORF72 ALS patients). Interestingly, 3K3A-APC also increased autophagosome formation in sporadic ALS iMNs (Figure 2, A and C [sporadic ALS, inactive 3K3A-APC, +bafilomycin vs. sporadic ALS, 3K3A-APC, +bafilomycin]; 3 controls and 5 sporadic ALS patients, and Supplemental Figure 2B), indicating that is also capable of rescuing C9ORF72-independent autophagy impairments. Western blot analysis of C9ORF72 ALS motor neurons showed that 3K3A-APC increased the ratio of LC3-II to LC3-I in the presence of bafilomycin, verifying the results of the mRFP-GFP-LC3 assay (Supplemental Figure 2, C and D). Therefore, 3K3A-APC treatment rescues autophagosome formation in C9ORF72 and sporadic ALS iMNs.
Dàn zìwo yìshí yeyou yigèyu mou zhong lèixíng de luójí xiangguan de lilùn fangmiàn. Rénlèi sixiang bùjin fanyìngle shìjiè, érqie nénggòu genjù yiqián de xiangfa gaibiàn. Wèile dádào zhenli, yigè rén jinglì yigè tuili guòchéng, kaol? dào yiqián de shìjiàn hé lijie, yi dádào mùqián de qíngkuàng. Shèhuì biàn de yuè lái yuè fùzá, yinwèi yiqián de jingyàn yingxiangle xiànzài de yìshí, tuidòng ta cóng jiandan de lùjìng (urweg). Biànzhèng chuansuo chóngxin chuàngjiàn suo xu de tuili guòchéng, yi liaojie zài tèdìng qíngkuàng xià fashengle shénme.
Wo ba wo de xin qizi hé nu'ér dài dào binxifaníya zhou de mi'er fú dé, wo cóng fùmu jìchéngle yi suo fángzi. Xi lì yà huì qù nàli de gaozhong háishì zài míng ní abo lì si? Lián shuo ta xihuan zhù zài yigè chéngshì. Zài mi'er fú dé liang tianhòu, women kaiche zhí ben míngnísudá, kaishi xin de shenghuó. Xi lì yà bèi pìn wéi míngnísudá zhou beibù de pàtèlikè·henglì gaozhong de zishen rénshì. Ta zài yingguó niújin fùjìn de guójì xuéxiào dùguòle yi nián de shíjian, jiangle chusè de yingyu. Lián zhunbèi xin shenghuó qu, shìyìng meiguó shenghuó, méiyou lìjí jìhuà. Yóuyú canyùle yèzhu xiaozu, wo jianduan de shì míng ní abo lì si shì shì zhang de hòuxuan rén. Wo de xin jiatíng bèi jièshào gei lóuzhu péngyou.
Zhè shì yigè wo xiang yào yongyou zìji de háizi de jianchí bù lizhì de zìsi de gùshì. Wo de yìsi shì yigè shengwù ér bùshì shouyang de háizi. Dang wo jiéhun yijing you háizi de fùnu shí, wo céng liang dù shì fùqin. Yigè you qi gè háizi - wu gè niánqing rén, liang gè zài tamen de qingshàonián shíqí - lìng yigè you yigè nu'ér lí dàxué yi nián. Suirán wo ba zhèxie dou dàng zuò wo jiatíng de yibùfèn, dàn tamen de muqin bi zhège háizi de fùmu duo yigè, wo xiwàng zhège shì píngdeng de.

To determine if 3K3A-APC can normalize glutamate receptor levels on neurons in vivo, we examined its ability to lower NR1 levels and NMDA-induced excitotoxicity in C9orf72+/– mice. We previously showed that hippocampal, cortical, and spinal cord neurons of C9orf72+/– mice have increased NR1 levels compared with C9orf72+/+ mice (4). We previously developed an acute, in vivo NMDA-induced excitotoxicity assay in the hippocampus (Figure 6E), and verified using cresyl violet staining as well as Fluoro-Jade B–positive dead neuron counting in sham control mice that the operation procedure itself does not result in significant injury (4). Similarly to iMN cultures, reduced C9ORF72 levels in C9orf72+/– and C9orf72–/– mice cause hippocampal neurons to undergo greater NMDA-induced excitotoxicity than in C9orf72+/+ mice, resulting in a significantly larger loss of neurons in C9ORF72-deficient mice that could be detected by a reduction in cresyl violet staining (Figure 6, F and G, and ref. 4). A single injection of 3K3A-APC into the hippocampus of C9orf72+/– mice significantly lowered NR1 levels after 48 hours (Figure 6, H and I) (n = 3 mice). Moreover, when coinjected with NMDA, 3K3A-APC significantly reduced the amount of NMDA-induced hippocampal neurodegeneration in C9orf72+/– mice (Figure 6, F and G). Thus, in vivo, 3K3A-APC improves proteostasis and normalizes glutamate receptors, thereby rescuing critical C9ORF72 ALS/FTD gain- and loss-of-function disease processes, respectively.
61 After 9 April those Beijingers with the most negative views of Japan avoided newspapers. See D. Stockmann, “What kind of information does the public demand? Getting the news during the 2005 anti-Japanese protests,” in S. Shirk (ed.), Changing Media, Changing China, forthcoming. Since non-readers were excluded from the statistical analysis, avoidance did not influence the empirical results presented here.

Another explanation for journalists’ disinclination to provide news to the new media centre is the emerging conflict between the traditional and new media departments of the Fujian press industry. The main purpose of media convergence is to reconstruct the news production workflow and manifest the notion of ‘collection once, generation into varieties and dissemination in diversities’. Under the dominant path, the original departments of new media outlets are incorporated into the department of new media centre. From the perspective of newspaper office leadership, the timeliness of newspapers falls short of new media; thus, the latter is likely to further decrease the market of the former by intensifying the decline in newspaper readers. The leadership in Fujian’s press groups has been exploring various methods of press release, such as supplying basic facts to new media whilst providing details, background information and other in-depth content to newspapers, giving new media the priority to non-exclusive material but offering newspapers the priority to exclusive information. Discords occasionally occurred between the managements of newspaper offices and new media centre nonetheless.

Wo de qizi méiyou canjia rènhé zhèxie yùndòng. Ta duì zhèngzhì gandào jingtì, yinwèi ta de wénhuà dàgémìng shí zaoshòu pòhài de fùqin gàosù ta, zhèngzhì shì wéixian de. Shìshí shàng, liánméng zài liang gè zhuyào de yùndòng zhong dou zài zhongguó. Ta ràng ta zuò ta zìji de shìqíng. Tóngshí, xi lì yà chéngwéi míngnísudá zhou bei fei'erdé ào lafu xuéyuàn de xuésheng.
Xila zàicì gòumai fángdìchan, dàn yòu shiqùle. Ta anpái chéngwéi fukàn hei si tíng si shì de háozhái de kanshou. Yicì huò liang cì, dang wo zoule, wo ba wo de gou dài dào nàli, yu xila de gou Rico yiqi zài caodì shàng wánshua. Xila de muqin dangshí ye zhù zài nàli. Xila xuyào cóng wo jiè qián lái zhifù zujin, chéngnuò ta muqin de zujin fèn'é jíjiang dàolái. Bùguò, zhè bi qián zhuan ér zài muqin de judòng zhiqián bèi pài wang kansàsi chéng de lìng yi wèi nu'ér. Wo bèi yíqìle. Zhurén hen kuài jiù gan zoule xila hé ta de jiarén. Ta méiyou wendìng de gongzuò.
Wúlùn rúhé, women kaiche dào míng ní abo lì si nánbù de wò er gélín, yilù dou zài shuohuà. Zhulì'an gàosù wo, ta jihu shì zài meiguó gòuwù zhòng xin bèi bu de kongbù xiányí rén. Ta yánzhe gòuwù zhòng xin fùjìn de yitiáo lù zouzhe chuanzhuó bèibao. Yi míng jing wù rényuán yaoqiú kàn ta de bèibao. Zhulì'an jùjué tóngyì. Gai guanyuán ránhòu xiang kàn dào yi zhang zhàopiàn ID. Ta méiyou. Xianrán, zhè míng junguan jianchále ta de míngzì, shénme ye méi faxiàn, suoyi ta bèi shìfàngle.
The Manchus were quick to exploit the death of the Chongzhen Emperor: by claiming to "avenge the emperor," they rallied support from loyalist Ming forces and civilians. The Shun dynasty lasted less than a year with Li Zicheng's defeat at the Battle of Shanhai Pass. The victorious Manchus established the Shunzhi Emperor of the Qing dynasty as ruler of all China. Because the Chongzhen Emperor had refused to move the court south to Nanjing, the new Qing government was able to take over a largely intact Beijing bureaucracy, aiding their efforts to displace the Ming.[22]
Mùqián zuhù zài shíyi yuèdi banqian hòu, xila jìhuà jìnrù wo fángwu de lóu xià danwèi. Bùguò, ta cuòwù de rènwéi zuhù jiàng zài shíyi yuèchu chufa. Xila xiàng dangqián de fángdong tongzhi ta dasuàn banjia. Dang ta yìshí dào ta de cuòwù shí, fángdong tóngyì ràng ta liú xià yigè yuè, rúguo ta zhifùle 1400 meiyuán de zujin. Bùxìng de shì, ta méiyou xiezuò. Fángdong shou dào fatíng de mìnglìng, pòshi ta zài 11 yuè 1 rì banqian. Xila jièzhe zhège mìnglìng, huale ji tian shíjian ba suoyou de wùpin dou zhuang xiang, ba yixie jiajù hé xiangzi cúnfàng zài qíta dìfang, qíyú de dou shì wo jinjí de ràng wo zài gongyù lóu li kong de xiàol? danwèi.
As an alternative to the 7F iMN differentiation procedure used in Fig. 7 and S8, iMNs were differentiated from C9-ALS and control iPSC lines using a Dox-NIL system. (a, b) Survival of Dox-NIL iMNs with or without TMX2 reduction by shRNA transduction. Results from two control (a) or two C9-ALS (b) lines were averaged to create the survival curves shown. (c, d) The same iMN data depicted in (b) but separated by individual C9-ALS cell line to show the variability in responses. (e) Representative images of GFP+ (shRNA expressing) C9-ALS iMNs taken during the survival experiments. (f) RNA was harvested from iMN survival experiments at the endpoint and TMX2 mRNA levels were measured by qRT-PCR (normalized to GAPDH levels). For information on the patient lines used and numbers of iMNs analyzed for survival analysis, see Supplementary Table 4.
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