Dang wo de jìhuà mìmì fu chu bìng jieshìqíngkuàng shí, hái you yigè xuanzé shì hé wo de qizi zuò xià. Ta keyi juédìng ta xiang zuò shénme hunyin: Jiéshù huò liú zài wo hé lìng yigè nurén kenéng yongyou de baobao. Wo kaishi duo cì jìnxíng zhè cì duìhuà, dàn kenéng méiyou yongqì huò juéxin tòu lòu yiqiè. Wo de qi zi biaoshì bùtóng qíng. Zài zhèyàng de taolùn zhong, ta zong shì qiángdiào wo qiàn ta de zhàngfu de zérèn. Women cónglái méiyou jìnxíngguò tánlùn you ying'ér de shì qíng. Hunyin shì ta jianchí bùdé bù fúcóng de tiáojiàn.

Women de diànzi yóujiàn taolùn jìnzhan dào ta ba fùjìn de kafei diàn mìngmíng wèi huìyì dìdian. Zhiyou women yuehuì de shíjian dì yi cì jiànmiànle. Wo fachule yigè xúnwèn, dàn méiyou huífù. Si ba dá zhànshìtúrán chénmò yexu ta de zhàngfu yijing liaojie dào women de mìmì duìhuà, bìng caiqu bùzhòu zuzhi huìyì. Yexu ta zhèngzài hé wo yiqi wán wúlùn rúhé, zài fasòng chóngfù de xiao xí zhihòu, wo zài ye méiyou cóng zhège nurén nàli ting dào.
an shì yigè tiánmì de rén, zhù zài ai dí nà de nán dài si gòuwù zhòng xin fùjìn. Ta de fùmu hái huózhe, ta de ayí hé shushu zài a dengshan yu liánbang mòhé gongsi danrèn xíngzhèng zhíwèi. Ta de xiongdì, míngnísudá zhou wuran kòngzhì jú hé rèxin de lù dé huì de gùyuán, jingcháng yu an xiang wéibèi, kàn dào zìji shì ta de baohù zhe. an dì fùqin zhù zài ta de gongyù li, an'an hé ta muqin zhù zài yiqi. Keyi shuo, ta shì yigè cuìruò de chéngnián rén.
In the early 1990s, Chinese press industry strategically expanded policy limits by using the tension between the state and capitals (Akhavan-Majid, 2004). For example, the operation management strategy through structural ‘zoning’ (Pan, 2000) and the content strategy pursuing newsworthiness to the maximum within the permissible policy scope (Zhao, 1996). Thus, newspapers that transform from ‘Party Mouthpiece’ to ‘Party Publicity Inc.’ (Lee et al., 2006) gained substantial rewards from the market whilst performing their propaganda function.
* This article is part of a book project examining the impact of media commercialization on news content and public opinion in China, tentatively titled Propaganda for Sale. For fruitful research collaboration I would like to thank Iain Johnston, Shen Mingming and the members of the Research Center for Contemporary China. I am also grateful for financial support provided by the Harvard-Yenching Institute and the Center for Chinese Studies at the University of Michigan. Many thanks as well to the participants of the Chinese politics workshop at the University of Wisconsin, Madison for helpful comments and to Wang Mingde for research assistance.
Wo shenqing líhun, zhuyào shi yinwèi méiyou rènhé xìngbié de, wo yiwéi women de hunyin yijing bengkuìle. Women shènzhì wúfa taolùn zhège wèntí. Wo de qizi bùduàn de yi fùmiàn de fangshì miáoshù wo, shuo biérén dou tóngyì ta de guandian. Wo de yìnxiàng shì, wo qizi dì lùndian xiàng yigè pòsuì de jìlù, fanfù chóngfù tóngyàng de xiangfa, jihu méiyou kenéng zouxiàng héjie. Cóng 1981 nián 11 yuè kaishi, women kaishi rènzhen taolùn líhun de kenéng xìng.
Our data indicate that motor neurons derived from C9ORF72 and at least a subset of sporadic ALS patients share similar defects in autophagosome formation and glutamate receptor accumulation. Importantly, PAR1 activation by 3K3A-APC can reverse these C9ORF72 and sporadic ALS disease processes in vitro and in vivo (Figure 7). We draw several key conclusions from our findings.
3K3A-APC potently rescued autophagosome formation in C9ORF72 ALS iMNs, as determined by its ability to increase the number of GFP+mRFP+ vesicles in bafilomycin-treated iMNs (Figure 2, A and B [C9-ALS, inactive 3K3A-APC, +bafilomycin vs. C9-ALS, 3K3A-APC, +bafilomycin]; 3 controls and 3 C9ORF72 ALS patients). Interestingly, 3K3A-APC also increased autophagosome formation in sporadic ALS iMNs (Figure 2, A and C [sporadic ALS, inactive 3K3A-APC, +bafilomycin vs. sporadic ALS, 3K3A-APC, +bafilomycin]; 3 controls and 5 sporadic ALS patients, and Supplemental Figure 2B), indicating that is also capable of rescuing C9ORF72-independent autophagy impairments. Western blot analysis of C9ORF72 ALS motor neurons showed that 3K3A-APC increased the ratio of LC3-II to LC3-I in the presence of bafilomycin, verifying the results of the mRFP-GFP-LC3 assay (Supplemental Figure 2, C and D). Therefore, 3K3A-APC treatment rescues autophagosome formation in C9ORF72 and sporadic ALS iMNs.
Yào jianchí zhuiqiú fùqin, nàme wo kenéng huì gàosù lián, bùyòng zài jìxù hunyinle. Ta keyi dabao huí jia. Zhè biaomíng wo rènwéi wo de qizi zhi bùguò shì yi zhong shengchan ying'ér de shouduàn. Wo bùshì nàme wúqíng lián hé wo hái zài gongzuò women de guanxì. Ta hái zài shìtú zài meiguó zhao lù. Xi lì yà ye zài zhèli kaishi xin de shenghuó. Liányì huì zài shengyù zhensuo xúnqiú bangzhù fangmiàn biaoxiàn chu chéngyì. Ta bùnéng róngyì huò anquán de yongyou yi gè ying'ér, dangrán bùshì ta de cuò. “Cuòwù” de yibùfèn shènzhì kenéng shì wo zìji de.
Ránhòu lìng yi tào jìshù chuxiànle. Tongguò shèying, xiàoxiànghuà jia zài huàbù shàng baochí miànbù túxiàng de youyòng xìng xùnsù bianzhí. Jiqì nénggòu chansheng bi zuìgao jìshù de yìshùjia gèng hao de duìxiàng de xiàoxiàng. Dang liúshengji hé diànying zhàopiàn chuxiàn shí, guanzhòng bàolù zài geshou huò yanyuán de lian hé shengyin de gè rén sùzhì. Bùjiu yiqián, wénhuà zhùyì lì cóng yigè xìjù jù zuòjia de zuòqu jia huò zuòjia suo xie de wénzì zhuanyí dào yanzòu zhe rúhé jieshì huò chéngxiàn zhèyàng de zuòpin. Zhiyou shaoshù chúncuì zhuyì zhe zhidào huò guanxin bianjù zài diànying zhong de zuòpin huò zuòqu jia zài chuàngzuò yinyuè fangmiàn de zuòyòng, shi yixie liúxíng geshou chéngwéi míngxing.
64 Moderately aware citizens tend to be most easily persuaded by news media messages, because poorly aware citizens do not receive media messages and the highly aware are more resistant to change their pre-held attitudes. McGuire, W. (ed.), Personality and Susceptibility to Social Influence (Chicago: Rand McNally, 1968), pp. 1130–87; Converse, P.E., “The nature of belief in mass publics,” in Apter, D. (ed.), Ideology and Discontent (New York: Free Press, 1964), pp. 206–61; Zaller, J., The Nature and Origins of Mass Opinion (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1992).

From the viewpoint of local journalists, news from the Fujian press industry was originally highly homogenised and lacked competitiveness. After the three-phase censorship of new media was institutionalised, risks from converging news production declined, but the timely release of information was weakened and the opportunity for journalistic autonomy has decreased as well. When covering politically sensitive social events, the freedom of speech of the new media was equally limited relative to others within the press industry and was occasionally even more restricted than that of newspapers.
Zuìjìn yóu Xiàwēiyí Dàxué Chūbǎnshè chūbǎn de “ABC Hàn-Yīng Yànyǔ Cídiǎn” bāohán le yuē 4000 duō tiáo Hànyǔ yànyǔ, gēnjù Hànyǔ Pīnyīn zhuǎnlù hé Hànzì (biāozhǔn jiǎntǐ), ànzhào yànyǔ shǒu cí de zìmǔ shùnxù páiliè, fùdài de Yīngwén shūmiàn zhíyì (rú bìyào yě huì cǎiyòng yìyì). Qítā nèiróng bāohán: jiǎnyào yòngfǎ zhùshì, láiyuán, bìngxíng biǎodá, cānzhào yǐnyòng yǐjí yìngyòng shílì. Yànyǔ shì yóu yī ge guānjiàncí (Zhōng-Yīngwén) suǒyǐn zēngbǔ de, tǐxiàn zài suǒyǒu shèjí de cítiáo hé huàtí li. Biānzhě duì zhèxiē yànyǔ zài chuántǒng yǔ dāngdài Zhōngguó li de dìngyì, jiégòu, yòngtú hé lìshǐ jìnxíng le xuéshù jièshào, lièchū le wénxiàn jí hé xiāngguān yànyǔ de xuéshù yánjiū.
“Jiaoyu ziben yu guojia xitong: Nanda de zuihou wu nian”  教育资本与国家系统:南大的最后五年  (Education Capital and National System: The Last Five Years of Nanyang University), presented at Nantah History Workship on “Zuqun, jiaoyu, guojia: 1953 zhi 1980 nian de Nanyang Daxue”  族群、教育、国家:1953至1980年的南洋大学 (Ethnicity, Education, and Country: Nanyang University, 1953-1980), in Singapore organized by the Centre for Chinese Language & Culture, Nanyang Technological University, 5 August 2006.
Studies in patients and animal and cell models have linked neuronal hyperexcitability to ALS (6, 27–32), but it remains unclear if there are common cell-autonomous mechanisms that drive hyperexcitability in different ALS patients. We previously found that reduced C9ORF72 levels lead to elevated surface-bound levels of glutamate receptors in C9ORF72 ALS iMNs, C9ORF72-deficient mice, and C9ORF72 patients, and that these differences were not caused by differential gene expression (4). We also showed that the elevated glutamate receptor levels increased sensitivity to glutamate-induced excitotoxicity in vitro and in vivo (4).
 “Jiu qiaoxiang de zhuanxing: 1978 zhi 2000 nian zhijian lisan huaren dui Panyu de yingxiang” 旧侨乡的转型:1978至2000年之间离散华人对番禺的影响   (The Transformation of Old Qiaoxiang: Chinese Diaspora’s Impact on Panyu, 1978-2000) in Tan Chee Beng 陈志明, Ding Yuling 丁毓玲 and Wang Lianmao 王连茂 (eds.), Kuaguo wangluo yu Huanan qiaoxiang: wenhua, rentong he shehui bianqian 跨国网络与华南侨乡:文化、认同和社会变迁  (Transnational Networks and Qiaoxiang Areas in South China:  Cultural, Identity and Social Change).  Hong Kong: Hong Kong Institute of Asia-Pacific Studies香港亚太研究所, Chinese University of Hong Kong, 2006 , pp. 303-343.
As a manifestation of the administrative barrier within Fujian’s press groups, the estrangement between metropolis newspaper offices and the new media centre has a further impact on the relationship between journalists and editors. Even when providing news, metropolis newspaper journalists are rather reluctant to invest time and energy and are less willing to cooperate with editors than their counterparts from the party organ due to lack of support from departmental leaders. Hence, conflicts over role misplacement frequently occur during their communication with the editors of the new media centre.

* “Zhongguo xin yimin he Xinjiapo shehui” 中国新移民和新加坡社会  (New Chinese Migrants and Singapore Society), presented at the Fourth Migration Law Forum on “Law of Exit and Administration, China and the World, in Beijing,” organized The School of Law, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing Association of International Law, Centre for China and Globalization, and China Western Returned Scholars Association, 18 November 2012.
La Jolla, Jiāzhōu — Wénlín Yánjiūsuǒ yǒuxiàn gōngsī (SPC) zhèngshì fābù Wénlín Hànyǔ Xuéxí Ruǎnjiàn 4.3 háohuá bǎn (Wénlín Wánzhěngbǎn). Xīn fābù de 4.3 bạ̌nběn wánquán zhīchí wánzhěngbǎn Hànyǔ Dà Cídiǎn suọ̌yǐn, suọ̌yǐn jīngguò gēngzhèng, kuòchōng bìng àn zìmǔ shùnxù páiliè, zuòwéi fùjiā chéngxù kě yǔ Wénlín ABC cídiǎn wánměi rónghé, jǐn shòu 49 Měiyuán. Wénlín ABC HDC suọ̌yǐn ruǎnjiàn bǎn kě ràng yònghù qīngsōng chákàn HDC ruǎnjiàn zhōng dàiyǒu de 350, 000 ge duōyīnjié tiáomù. Wénlín ABC HDC kuòzhǎn chéngxù shì yī zhǒng xiānjìn de yánjiū gōngjù, gòng shōunàle chāoguò 568, 000 ge tiáomù. Tōngguò cānkǎo HDC tiáomù, nǐ kẹ̌yǐ gènghǎo de lị̌jiě hěn duō ABC dāncí (bụ̀lùn shì-fǒu chūxiàn zài HDC). Tóngyàng de, HDC hángàile xǔduō wèi shōulù zài ABC cídiǎn de tiáomù, dàn yǔ ABC cíkù jiéhé qǐlai huì gènghǎo lị̌jiě. ABC+HDC de cházhǎo gōngnéng jīngcháng huì dǎoxiàng xiāngguān xìnxī, wúlùn shì Wénlín zhíjiē lièchū de liànjiē huòshì tōngguò Wénlín xīn tuīchū de wǎngluò sōusuǒ gōngnéng. HDC suọ̌yǐn yǔ ABC Hànyǔ cídiǎn xìliè zhǔbiān Méi Wéihéng (Victor H. Mair) jiàoshòu, (láizì Bīnxīfǎníyà dàxué), xiě dào︰ "Kàndào Wénlín fābùle yǐ dānxiàng páixù zìmǔ suọ̌yǐn wánzhěngbǎn «Hànyǔ Dà Cídiǎn» de diànzǐ bǎn, wǒ fēicháng gāoxìng. Zhè duì chīmí Hànyǔ yánjiū de měi yī gèrén lái shuō quèshí shì yī ge fúyīn".

(A) Immunofluorescence images showing NR1+ punctae on neurites of iMNs treated with 10 nM inactive 3K3A-APC or 3K3A-APC for 6 days. Scale bar: 2 μm. This experiment was repeated 3 times with similar results. (B and C) NR1+ punctae per unit area in control, C9-ALS (B), or sporadic ALS (C) iMNs. Each gray circle represents the number of NR1+ punctae per area unit on a single neurite (1 neurite quantified per iMN). n = 33 (controls and C9-ALS) or 13 (sporadic) iMNs quantified per line per condition from 2 biologically independent iMN conversions of 2 CTRL, 2 C9-ALS, or 6 sporadic ALS lines. Median ± interquartile range. Kruskal-Wallis testing. (D) Number of calcium transients per 30 seconds in control or C9-ALS iMNs treated with 10 nM inactive 3K3A-APC or 3K3A-APC. n = 21 iMNs per line per condition from 3 biologically independent iMN conversions of 3 CTRL and 3 C9-ALS lines. For the C9-ALS plus 3K3A-APC condition, n = 19 iMNs per line. Median ± interquartile range. Kruskal-Wallis testing. (E) Number of calcium transients per 30 seconds in control or sporadic ALS iMNs treated with inactive 3K3A-APC or 3K3A-APC. n = 20 iMNs per line per condition from 3 biologically independent iMN conversions of 3 CTRL and 1 sporadic line. Median ± interquartile range. Kruskal-Wallis testing. (F) Immunoblotting of surface NR1 after surface protein biotinylation in C9-ALS iMNs generated with NGN2, ISL1, and LHX3 and treated with 10 nM inactive 3K3A-APC or 3K3A-APC for 6 days. (G) Quantification of NR1 immunoblotting from F. n = 4 biologically independent iMN conversions. Each gray circle represents an individual sample. The ratio of surface to total transferrin receptor was used to normalize for the membrane protein extraction efficiency and TUJ1 was used to normalize for neuron number. (H) Immunoblotting of surface NR1 after surface protein biotinylation in sporadic ALS iMNs (1 patient) generated with NGN2, ISL1, and LHX3 and treated with 10 nM inactive 3K3A-APC or 3K3A-APC for 6 days. The full blot for total TUJ1 is shown. (I) Quantification of NR1 immunoblotting from H. n = 4 biologically independent iMN conversions. Each gray circle represents an individual sample. The ratio of surface to total transferrin receptor was used to normalize for the membrane protein extraction efficiency and TUJ1 was used to normalize for neuron number. The day of differentiation stated on each panel indicates the day of differentiation on which the experimental treatment or time course was initiated. TF, transferrin.


(A) Immunofluorescence images showing NR1+ punctae on neurites of iMNs treated with 10 nM inactive 3K3A-APC or 3K3A-APC for 6 days. Scale bar: 2 μm. This experiment was repeated 3 times with similar results. (B and C) NR1+ punctae per unit area in control, C9-ALS (B), or sporadic ALS (C) iMNs. Each gray circle represents the number of NR1+ punctae per area unit on a single neurite (1 neurite quantified per iMN). n = 33 (controls and C9-ALS) or 13 (sporadic) iMNs quantified per line per condition from 2 biologically independent iMN conversions of 2 CTRL, 2 C9-ALS, or 6 sporadic ALS lines. Median ± interquartile range. Kruskal-Wallis testing. (D) Number of calcium transients per 30 seconds in control or C9-ALS iMNs treated with 10 nM inactive 3K3A-APC or 3K3A-APC. n = 21 iMNs per line per condition from 3 biologically independent iMN conversions of 3 CTRL and 3 C9-ALS lines. For the C9-ALS plus 3K3A-APC condition, n = 19 iMNs per line. Median ± interquartile range. Kruskal-Wallis testing. (E) Number of calcium transients per 30 seconds in control or sporadic ALS iMNs treated with inactive 3K3A-APC or 3K3A-APC. n = 20 iMNs per line per condition from 3 biologically independent iMN conversions of 3 CTRL and 1 sporadic line. Median ± interquartile range. Kruskal-Wallis testing. (F) Immunoblotting of surface NR1 after surface protein biotinylation in C9-ALS iMNs generated with NGN2, ISL1, and LHX3 and treated with 10 nM inactive 3K3A-APC or 3K3A-APC for 6 days. (G) Quantification of NR1 immunoblotting from F. n = 4 biologically independent iMN conversions. Each gray circle represents an individual sample. The ratio of surface to total transferrin receptor was used to normalize for the membrane protein extraction efficiency and TUJ1 was used to normalize for neuron number. (H) Immunoblotting of surface NR1 after surface protein biotinylation in sporadic ALS iMNs (1 patient) generated with NGN2, ISL1, and LHX3 and treated with 10 nM inactive 3K3A-APC or 3K3A-APC for 6 days. The full blot for total TUJ1 is shown. (I) Quantification of NR1 immunoblotting from H. n = 4 biologically independent iMN conversions. Each gray circle represents an individual sample. The ratio of surface to total transferrin receptor was used to normalize for the membrane protein extraction efficiency and TUJ1 was used to normalize for neuron number. The day of differentiation stated on each panel indicates the day of differentiation on which the experimental treatment or time course was initiated. TF, transferrin.
Total RNA was extracted from sorted iMNs on day 21 after transduction with a TRIzol RNA Extraction Kit (Life Technologies) and reverse transcribed with an Oligo dT primer using a ProtoScript II First Strand Synthesis Kit (NEB). RNA integrity was checked using the Experion system (Bio-Rad). Real-time PCR was performed with iTaq Universal SYBR Green Supermix (Bio-Rad) using primers shown in Supplemental Table 3.
Although the competitiveness of commercial new media are discerned, the interviewed journalists remain inclined to regard the contents of new media as ‘superficial’, ‘fast food-like’ and ‘targeting lower-level readers’. Accordingly, the journalists believe that the poor quality of the content provided by the nonprofessional new media outlets further highlights the importance of the journalists’ professional expertise of separating falsity from truth.
2010 Nián 2 yuè xiàxún, míng ní abo lì si jingfang duì wo de gongyù dàlóu jìnxíng túxí, zài qízhong yigè danwèi faxiàn dúpin, bìng gei wo fale yi feng “jinggào xìn”, yaoqiú wo tíjiao yi fèn “guanli jìhuà”, shi jiànzhú wù mian yú dúpin. Zài tóng yigè yuè, weisikangxing zhou de yi wèi péngyou hé wo jìhuà zài huáshèngdùn tèqu fújíníya zhou jiaoqu canjia meiguó wényì fùxing shíqí de huìyì, zhè shì yigè qin báisè de zuzhi.“Fan zhongzú zhuyì zhe” weixié shuo, huìyì jiàng zài jiudiàn gongzuò rényuán juxíng, bìxu quxiao.
3K3A-APC potently rescued autophagosome formation in C9ORF72 ALS iMNs, as determined by its ability to increase the number of GFP+mRFP+ vesicles in bafilomycin-treated iMNs (Figure 2, A and B [C9-ALS, inactive 3K3A-APC, +bafilomycin vs. C9-ALS, 3K3A-APC, +bafilomycin]; 3 controls and 3 C9ORF72 ALS patients). Interestingly, 3K3A-APC also increased autophagosome formation in sporadic ALS iMNs (Figure 2, A and C [sporadic ALS, inactive 3K3A-APC, +bafilomycin vs. sporadic ALS, 3K3A-APC, +bafilomycin]; 3 controls and 5 sporadic ALS patients, and Supplemental Figure 2B), indicating that is also capable of rescuing C9ORF72-independent autophagy impairments. Western blot analysis of C9ORF72 ALS motor neurons showed that 3K3A-APC increased the ratio of LC3-II to LC3-I in the presence of bafilomycin, verifying the results of the mRFP-GFP-LC3 assay (Supplemental Figure 2, C and D). Therefore, 3K3A-APC treatment rescues autophagosome formation in C9ORF72 and sporadic ALS iMNs.

The major obstacle to journalists’ willingness to collaborate is not their unawareness of the immense influence that new media has upon the press industry but their professional dignity. That is, the fiercer the competition that the press industry encounters, the greater the urgency that the journalists feel in defending the boundary between themselves, professionals and amateurs, who encompass all types of emerging information providers on new media. This elitist imagination of the profession motivates journalists to resist collaborating with the new media centres and inspires those who actively adapted themselves to converging news production.
La Jolla, Jiāzhōu — Wénlín Yánjiūsuǒ shèhuì mùdì gōngsī (SPC) zhèngshì fābù Wénlín CDL (TM) JavaScript, wèi yídòng duān hé wǎngyè duān kāifā rényuán shíxiàn Hànzì bǐhuà dònghuà, cèshì hé kě shì huà xiàoguǒ. Wénlín CDL JavaScript wǎngzhàn zhǎnshì qīngsōng mónǐ Hànzì bǐhuà de dònghuà, yǐjí bǐhuà shùnxù xiǎo cè hé bǐhuà fēnjiě yàngběn. Wénlín CDL JavaScript kù tígōngle jiěxī, xuànrǎn hé xiūgǎi CDL de gōngnéng. Wénlín CDL JavaScript xuànrǎn gōngnéng tōngguò shūchū SVG de JavaScript kù shíxiàn, yǐbiàn shǐyòng CDL xuànrǎn wǎngyè, Android, iOS hé rènyì yùnxíng JavaScript hé SVG de píngtái shàng de zìfú.
Dàgài zài zhège shíhòu, wo zhèngzài chuli yexu shì wo céngjing yù dào de zuì zaogao de zu kè. Ta shì yigè niánqing de danshen muqin, ta shì yigè nu tóngxìngliàn zhe. Ài lún pìnqing ta bangzhù qingjié gongyù. Ta xiàng wo baozhèng, ta bèi gùyòng bìng keyi zhifù zujin. Yijia jigòu zài 2009 nián 12 yuè de dì yigè yuè de zujin zhong zhifùle yibàn. Dànshì, yidàn ban jìnle zhè wèi zuhù,Ashley jiù kaishi bàoyuàn gongyù de wéixiu wèntí. Dang ài lún shìtú jiejué tamen shí, ta bàoyuàn wùpin zài ta líkai gongyù shí bèi tou zou. a shén lì rènwéi, zài suoyou de wéixiu wèntí dédào jiejué zhiqián, ta bù huì zhifù zujin. Ta jùjué qianyue zuyue. Yourén gàosù ta, rúguo méiyou qianyue, wo bùnéng héfa shou zu.
The effects of the dominant path of media convergence on the mid-size press industry are the focus of this study. The path chosen by the press industry in other regions of China may differ from the dominant one in Fujian due to the nuances of power structure, level of economic development, size of press group and other factors. For example, the Nanfang Media Group’s choice of the fully transformed path has a bearing on its pioneering spirit and remarkable investment, which are derived from its distance from the centre of political power, the prosperity of the market economy in Guangdong and the surrounding areas, and the considerable assets from accumulation within the media group in the past decades (Yin and Liu, 2013). Nevertheless, Fujian’s case discloses the common challenges that the Chinese press industry will face as they further advance the convergence regardless of which path they choose. This study also develops an analytical framework based on the interplay amongst the state, media and journalists to be used in future research on China’s media convergence.
In light of the relationship between newspapers and websites, Mai (2012: 118–119) classified the path of media convergence of Chinese press industry into three types: extendedly ameliorated, establishing a convergence platform with newspapers as the core without changing the mechanism of content production and the structure of press industry; new media driven, setting up a convergence platform with new media as the core to push forward newspapers to progressively transform the flow, relationship and concept of news production; and fully transformed, replacing the original structure of the press industry with a brand new structure. Of the three, the ‘extendedly ameliorated’ approach has become the dominant path of media convergence because it rarely challenges the intrinsic structural restriction of press groups.
Prompts from new media centre editors that ‘users responded intensely’ are often believed as too trivial to be ‘worth writing about’, hence are ultimately ignored by journalists. Editors blame the journalists’ reaction on lack of awareness, that is, journalists lack knowledge of new media, underestimate the intensity of competition between the press industry and commercial new media and overlook user demands. In fact, journalists expressed their concern regarding increasingly intense market competition in both the survey and in-depth interviews. They sensed that when various types of newspapers obtain news clues from new media and as reportage becomes increasingly homogenised, newspapers are confronted with increasingly intense competition.
By the end of 2012, the circulation and advertising revenues of the Fujian press industry declined substantially, indicating its entry into a ‘cold winter’. Secretary-General Xi Jinping delivered the ‘8•19’ speech in 2014. Subsequently, Fujian’s press groups began to receive local fiscal support, actually ‘reaching a consensus’ and advancing media convergence. In 2014 alone, the Xiamen Daily Group gained substantial support from the municipal government, thereby pioneering the establishment of a ‘central control platform of converged media’ and a new media centre, which has been followed by several other press groups in Fujian.
Jenkins (2004) stressed that media convergence should be viewed as a ‘culture’ because it changed the relationship among technology, industry, market, product type and audience. By scrutinising the relationship between media institution and practitioners, the culture-oriented approach can facilitate the re-examination of the interaction mechanism between the institutional arrangement of media convergence and the logic of actors, as well as reconsideration of the social structure on a microscopic scale, thereby narrowing the gap between the media economics and media performance approaches.
Guanyú zìwo yìshí de zhutí, shouxian rènshi dào ta shì jiézòu de dírén. Ta shì yi zhong fushí xìng de yingxiang, daozhì jiézòu shiqù. Jiézòu de biaoxiàn xuyào mou zhong zhùyì lì, jízhong zài sixiang de nèibù yàosù yuqí zhíxíng ér bùshì zhèngzài zhíxíng de lì chéng. Zhùyì rènhé shìqíng shì yi zhong fenxin, daozhì jízhong shiqù. Biaoyan zhe bùnéng zhùyì zìji huò ta de yùndòng, bìng qiwàng biaoxiàn liánghao. Ta bìxu shiqù biaoyan benshen.
Zài qízhong yigè changhé, wo gàosù xila, wo shì tú zhaodào yigè méiyou jiéhun de nurén, yào hé wo yiqi shenghuó. Ta de guanzi bèi shùfù hòu, ta wúlì. Rán'ér, dang women jiéhun de shíhòu, women yijing jiandan dì wéi ta zuòle yigè shoushù lái niuzhuan shuluanguan jiéza. Zì nà yilái, zhè xiàng jìshù jìnbùle. Xila zài hùliánwang shàng jìnxíng sousuo, zài fóluólidá zhou de kèlì er wò tè zhaodàole yigè dìfang, jiang yi 10,000 meiyuán jìnxíng nìzhuan chéngxù. Ta rènwéi, boshìdùn kexué gongsi de jiànkang baoxian kenéng huì zhifù bùfèn chéngben. Rúguo you xìngqù, wo jiang bùdé bù zhifù qíyú fèiyòng.
65 The coefficient of the interaction term was not statistically significant because of the small n of the treatment group. This indicates that we cannot be 95% certain that we would retrieve similar results over repeated samples. However, the dynamics are similar when comparing Beijingers' use of the internet and newspapers, thus further providing evidence that “new” media are more effective than “old” media in appeasing citizens. See Stockmann, “What kind of information does the public demand?”
Wo wúfa dédào yisheng de dáfù, shuomíng wo qizi zài huáiyùn qíjian siwáng de kenéng xìng, háishì you biànxíng de ying'ér. Yexu zhè shì bù qiè shíjì de wèntí. Zài suíhòu yu xi lì yà de duìhuà zhong, wo juédìng zhè zhong qíngkuàng shì wúwàng de. Dangrán, wo bùnéng gàosù yisheng, tamen céngjing jinggàoguò kenéng daozhì liánlián siwáng de chéngxù. Wo gàosù xi lì yà wo tóngyì zài shengyù zhensuo tíngzhi zhìliáo.
Yóuyú shougao chaoxie yuán shengchan yi fèn wénben de danyi fùben, gùyòng jiàoduì yuán jianchá ta de gongzuò de zhunquè xìngshì bù jingjì de. Dànshì, rúguo dayìnji yi xiangtóng de xíngshì chuàngjiànle shù qian fèn xiangtóng wénben de fùben, nàme zixì jianchá zhèxie jiàoyàng shì zhídé de, yinwèi cuòwù huì bèi chéng yi duo cì. Yinci, zài yìnshua gémìng zhiqián chuàngzào de shougao baohán gè zhong pinxie, biaodian hé yufa jiégòu. Lìrú, shashìbiya de tóngshídài rén yòng ji zhong bùtóng de fangshì pinxiele ta de xìng shì. Rán'ér, rénmen bù yìng gai tongguò yìnshua wénhuà de biaozhun lái pànduàn zhè yi shíqí de zuòjia. Zengqiáng de kòngzhì wénben de zhìliàng de nénglì daozhì gèng dà de yizhì xìng hé tèzheng de biaozhunhuà.

Zuòwéi ben famíng de jiéguo, rénlèi xiànzài you yi zhong fangshì lái jì zhù yi zhè zhong fangshì jìlù de suoyou shuo chu de cíyu. Jìyì shì yongjiu de hé jingquè de. Quedian shì dàliàng de fúhào. Mei gè cíyu xuyào yigè xiangyìng de shumiàn yuyán. Rúguo you yi wàn gè shuo chu de cí, xuyào xiangtóng shùliàng de shuxie fúhào. Zhè shì yigè jianjù de rènwù, xuéxí yuèdú hé xie zhème duo bùtóng de fúhào.

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