The Chongzhen Emperor (Chinese: 崇禎; pinyin: Chóngzhēn; 6 February 1611 – 25 April 1644), personal name Zhu Youjian (Chinese: 朱由檢; pinyin: Zhū Yóujiǎn), was the 17th and last Emperor of the Ming dynasty as well as the last Han Chinese to reign as Emperor of China. He reigned from 1627 to 1644. "Chongzhen," the era name of his reign, means "honorable and auspicious".
Liányì huì zài 2003 nián shèngdàn jié qíjian shenqingle wèiyú míng ní abo lì si shì zhongxin de Target shangdiàn de línshí zhíwèi. Yóuyú ta de gongzuò liánghao, ta bèi yaoqiú zuòwéi yi míng yongjiu xìng gùyuán liú xià. Ta de gongzuò rènwù shì qingxiàng yú zhuangxiu shì. Zhège zhíwèi di yú ta zài zhongguó de zhíwèi, dànshì ta hé ta de jingli rén hé tóngshì youzhe xióngxin bóbó de guanxì. Duìyú wo lái shuo, wo hen gaoxìng kàn dào wo de qizi zhàn zài ta hóng liàng de hóngsè zhìfú dì dìban shàng. Dang ta zài 2005 nián bèi píng wèi “weidà de tuánduì yingxióng” shí, wo xiele yi shou shi.
Zhèxie qiánghuà shèbèi you zhù yú jiànlì kouqiang wénhuà. Zhè zhong wénhuà duìyú yíshì xìng biaoxiàn de zhongshí dù you hen gao de yaoqiú. Bìxu jì zhù yiqiè de rén fà zhan chu baoshou de xintài, bù yuàn jieshòu xuyào bù xuéxí hé chóngxin xuéxí mou xie shìwù de biànhuà. Kàn qilái yigè zérèn, bìxu jì zhù suoyou zhèxie zhishì, ér bù qiúzhù yú xiezuò. Lìng yi fangmiàn, zhishì biàn de gèngjia gèrén huà, bìngqie zài jìyì zhong baoliú ér bùshì zài zhi shàng biaodá shí geng mìqiè. Zài yuánshi wénhuà yi zongjiào wéi zhongxin de chéngdù shàng, mei zhong yíshì huò jìyì xíngwéi dou chéngwéi yi zhong jiang rén yu zuxian de líng hé shén liánxì qilái de daogào. Zài zhèyàng de wénhuà zhong youyigè shèqu jingshén, shìzì shèhuì quefá. Zhè zhong lèixíng de jìyì zài jingshén shàng bi yóu shují zuchéng de wénhuà lèixíng gèng qiángdà hé gèng fengfù, suirán ta ye kenéng shì yi zhong xiàol? jiào di de baocún zhishì de fangshì.
Wo 11 yuè 24 rì fei wang zhongguó, huale shí tian shíjian yu lián. Women jìhuà qù yuènán luxíng, dànshì yóuyú wo méiyou zhòng wén de wénjiàn, suoyi méiyou dédào jiejué. Women ye xiwàng qù tianjin yitian de luxíng, dàn méiyou. Women huale zhengzheng yigè shíjian zài beijing, zài nàli maile xin yanjìng, bìng pèile yìchi. Wo yigè rén huí dào míngnísudá zhou,12 yuè 5 rì língchén dàodá.
“Transforming an Old Qiaoxiang: Impacts of the Diaspora on Panyu, 1978-2000,”  presented at the Second International Conference for Institute & Libraries for Overseas Chinese Studies on “Transnational Networks: Challenges in Research and Documentation of the Chinese Overseas,” in Hong Kong, organized by the University Library System, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, and Ohio University Libraries, 13-15 March 2003.
Xila fei wang fóluólidá zhou jìn háng háng dòng. Women zhi néng tongguò diànzi yóujiàn jìnxíng goutong, ér bù shì diànhuà goutong. Yóuyú mou zhong yuányin, ta bùdé bù baoliú éwài de yitian. Wo zhèngzài shou dào miáoshù ta zài tíngche chang kàn dào de xiyì de diànzi yóujiàn. Zuìhòu,2007 nián 1 yuè 22 rì, wo shou dàole láizì xila de lìng yi feng diànzi yóujiàn, ta xuyào wo ba 2,320 meiyuán fàng rù zhipiào zhànghù, yibiàn éwài shouqu yiyuàn fèiyòng bìng fanhuí jiayuán. Bù, dang ta huílái shí, wo zài jichang yùjiàn bùliao ta.
Moreover, the decline of influence on public opinion is definitely another key factor that triggered the convergence within Chinese press industry. It is fairly illustrated in Secretary-General Xi Jinping’s ‘8•19’ speech on ‘boost the convergence between traditional and new media, and completely apply new technology in innovating the forms of media communication to seize a commanding height in the field of information communication’ (Liu, 2014). This situation is relatively similar to that of the media conglomeration in the late 1990s, when the legitimacy of reform stemmed from the policy of making domestic media ‘bigger and stronger’ to pre-empt the anticipated foreign competition in the World Trade Organization era. Meanwhile, a majority of domestic press groups were established based on administrative decrees rather than on business demands (Chen and Lee, 1998). Eliminating ‘dispersion’ and ‘chaos’ in the public opinion domain is the key factor that catalyses both media conglomeration and media convergence.
Zhou, BH (2014) Chinese journalists’ social media usage and its influential factors: A survey on young journalists in Shanghai (Zhongguo xinwen congyezhe de shejiao meiti yunyong jiqi yingxiang yinsu: Yi xiang zhendui shanghai qingnian xinwen congyezhe de diaocha yanjiu). Journal of Journalism and Communication (Xinwen yu chuanbo yanjiu) 120(12): 34–53.

One of the goals of media convergence in the reconstruction process is to modify the journalist–editor relationship by veering from ‘journalist-centred’ to ‘editor-centred’, such that journalists shall mainly undertake the role of information gatherer, whereas editors perform the role of information synthesiser. Regarding real news production, most new media centre editors are recruited from the members of society who are familiar with new media but inexperienced in news gathering and editing; thus, they are mere ‘stevedores’ rather than ‘processors’ of texts. Given that editors lacked the required qualifications, journalists were forced to undertake additional tasks (e.g., verifying information and converting statements from frontline journalists into text) that should have been performed by editors.

The term ‘domestication’ originally refers to the process of bringing wild animals or plants under control and using them for food or as pets. In journalism research, ‘domestication’ generally refers to journalism practitioners establishing an association between a foreign news event and the domestic audience by applying certain strategies of representation (Gurevitch et al., 1991). In this study, ‘domestication’ describes the strong institutional inertia under which new media outlets have been progressively involved in the orbit of newspapers. Accordingly, this process homogenises the new media outlets with the system, routines and cultures of traditional media.


Yìnshua de yinrù yu duì gudian luóma hé xilà zuòjia dezhe zuò chóngxin gan xìngqù. Gudian xilà hé luóma wénhuà de zuòpin bèi rènwéi shì youxiù wénmíng de chanwù, zhídé fangxiào. Shèngjing zhong yeyou lèisì de zànmei. Xiàng yi la si mó hé mading·lù dé zhèyàng de xuézhe yòng lading yu huò xilà yu chuàngzàole shèngjing de xin yìben, xiwàng néng xiàng rénlèi kenéng dì nàyàng duì yuánshi wénben yiyàng zhenshí.
Shangjia kenéng yijing dì yi cì shiyòng ta. Tamen zài fangwèn mòsheng hé yáoyuan dì dìfang de jinglì cìjile yuyán, zongjiào, xísú hé sixiang zhi jian de bijiào. Zhège duan shouxie de jiaoben chuàngzàole yi zhong gèngjia jinglì chongpèi hé tànsuo de shèhuì lèixíng. Yixie xúnwèn zhe shì fazhan zìji de sixiang xìtong de zhéxué jia. Suízhe xiezuò zhishì guangfàn chuánbò, qí shìjué biaojì chéngwéi hàoqí xin de duìxiàng, yóuqí shì zài jùyou qiángliè koutóu chuántong de shèhuì. Zhè zhong shèhuì cúnzài yú 5 shìjìde xilà chéngbang. Hé ma shi, jì dé bù dú, shì xilà rén liánhé de wénhuà juzhèn. Rán'ér, xiàng Hesiod,Aeschylus hé Sophocles zhèyàng de zuòjia ye zài xiànchang.
Zhège shíhòu liánlián zài zhongguó henduo. 6 Yuè dì èr gè xingqí, wo yijing yùjì huì hé alán yiqi zouchu ximén, jiang gege de wùpin cóng éleigang zhou de bo tè lán ban dào dékèsàsi zhou de shèng'andongní'ào shì. Dàn ài lún wúfa zuòchu anpái. Jie xiàlái, wo 6 yuè 17 rì fei wang yánhú chéng, canjiale yóuta zhou puluo wò qingnián dàxué guójì bùtóng wénmíng bijiào yánjiu xuéhuì de wéiqí 3 tian de huìyì. Ránhòu,6 yuè 19 rì xingqíliù, wo fei wang boshìdùn luò gen jichang, kaiche qiánwang mian yin zhou Lewiston de qìche luguan, yibiàn zài 6 yuè 20 rì xingqírì zài mian yin zhou bù lisi tuo er canjia wo de zhínu Emily hunli.
These findings indicate that media convergence is never merely a technological issue. The journalists’ stance on new technologies is not sufficient to guarantee a corresponding attitude towards media convergence. To gain a comprehensive understanding of the effects of convergence, the social context, typically the media system and journalistic culture must be taken into consideration. Both of them exert great influence on journalists’ attitude towards media convergence.

Liu Yu's mother Zhao Anzong (趙安宗) died on the same day that she gave birth to him, in 363. His father Liu Qiao (劉翹) later married Xiao Wenshou, although the date of the marriage is not known. She bore Liu Qiao two sons, Liu Daolian (劉道憐) and Liu Daogui (劉道規). Liu Yu was described to be highly deferential and respectful to her, as she was the only mother he knew. After he overthrew Huan Xuan, who seized the Jin Dynasty (265-420) throne in 403, he was created the Duke of Yuzhang, and she was honored as the Duchess Dowager of Yuzhang in 412. After he was created the Prince of Song in 419, she was honored as princess dowager. After he seized the Jin throne and established Liu Song in 420, she was honored as the empress dowager. By this point, Liu Yu was himself quite advanced in age (57), but he was described as so careful and so loving to her that he visited her every day without ceasing. After he died and was succeeded by his son Emperor Shao of Liu Song in 422, she was honored as grand empress dowager. She died in 423, and, pursuant to instructions that both she and Emperor Wu left, she was buried at the same site as Liu Qiao but not in the same tomb, as it would be difficult to conduct an imperial burial in the small tomb that Liu Qiao was buried.
As an alternative to the 7F iMN differentiation procedure used in Fig. 7 and S8, iMNs were differentiated from C9-ALS and control iPSC lines using a Dox-NIL system. (a, b) Survival of Dox-NIL iMNs with or without TMX2 reduction by shRNA transduction. Results from two control (a) or two C9-ALS (b) lines were averaged to create the survival curves shown. (c, d) The same iMN data depicted in (b) but separated by individual C9-ALS cell line to show the variability in responses. (e) Representative images of GFP+ (shRNA expressing) C9-ALS iMNs taken during the survival experiments. (f) RNA was harvested from iMN survival experiments at the endpoint and TMX2 mRNA levels were measured by qRT-PCR (normalized to GAPDH levels). For information on the patient lines used and numbers of iMNs analyzed for survival analysis, see Supplementary Table 4.
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